Dentin primer based on a highly functionalized gelatin-methacryloyl hydrogel

Ala Alia, Feng Gao, John C. Mitchell, Joshua Gasiorowski, Mae Ciancio, Bhimanna Kuppast, Carmem Pfeifer, Marcela R. Carrilho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Gelatin-methacryloyl hydrogels (GelMA) have demonstrated their utility as scaffolds in a variety of tissue engineering applications. Objectives: In this study, a highly functionalized GelMA hydrogel was synthesized and assessed for degree of functionalization. As the proposed GelMA hydrogel was coupled to a visible-light photoinitiator, we hypothesized it might serve as base to formulate a model dentin primer for application in restorative dentistry. Methods: GelMA was mixed with photoinitiator lithium phenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphosphinate (LAP), photopolymerized for 0–40 s using a dental light-curing device and tested for extrudability, degree of photo-crosslinking (DPxlink), water sorption/solubility/swelling (WS/SL/SW) and apparent modulus of elasticity (AE). Model dentin primer was prepared by mixing GelMA+LAP with a primer of a commercial three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. After application of GelMA-based primer to acid-etched dentin, samples were bonded with correspondent adhesive agent, photopolymerized and had their immediate bond strength compared to control samples primed and bonded with the same commercial material. Results: Extrudability of hydrogel was confirmed using a microsyringe to write the acronym “CDMI”. DPxlink of GelMA+LAP changed significantly as a function of photopolymerization time (20 s < 30 s ≤ 40 s). WS, SL and SW were significantly reduced in hydrogels polymerized for 30 and 40 s. AE of hydrogels varied significantly as a function of photopolymerization time (20 s < 30 s ≤ 40 s; 20 s ‡ 40 s). Bond strength of dentin primed with GelMA-based primer was lower (∼29.3 MPa) but not significantly of that of control (∼34.6 MPa). Conclusions: Optimization of a GelMA-based dentin primers can lead to the development of promising biomimetic adhesives for dentin rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDental Materials
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Dentin
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Gelatin
  • Hydrogels
  • Methacrylamides
  • Model bonding agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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