Female carriers are more common than males with hemophilia and unrecognized factor VIII or IX deficiency is associated with intrauterine growth retardation, epidural hematomas, blood transfusion, and peripartum hemorrhage. A review was conducted to assess the evidence for professional society recommendations for > 50% factor levels during labor. Two searches of Pubmed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were completed in October 2019. The first for case reports and series described neuraxial techniques in patients with hemophilia—regardless of sex, age, or pregnant status. The second for case reports and series described bleeding outcomes of parturients with hemophilia. Primary outcomes were diagnosis of neuraxial hematoma (first search) and postpartum bleeding complications (second search). Thirteen articles (n = 134) described neuraxial techniques in patients with hemophilia. Neuraxial hematoma with paraplegia occurred in 3/134 patients—all had a factor level of 1%. Nineteen articles (2712 deliveries in 2657 women) described bleeding outcomes. Postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 7.1% (193/2712) of deliveries, of which 60% necessitated blood transfusion. Postpartum bleeding complications were twice as likely (51.0% [25/49] vs. 25.6% [52/203], P < 0.001) with factor activity < 50%. Therefore, factor levels should be assessed and increased above 50% prior to neuraxial technique and delivery. Trial registration: PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018110215.
- Epidural hematoma
- Postpartum hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine