Purpose: Selective RAF-targeted therapy is effective in some patients with BRAFV600E-mutated glioma, though emergent and adaptive resistance occurs through ill-defined mechanisms. Experimental Design: Paired pre-/post- RAF inhibitor (RAFi)- treated glioma samples (N = 15) were obtained and queried for treatment-emergent genomic alterations using DNA and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Functional validation of putative resistance mechanisms was performed using established and patient-derived BRAFV600E-mutant glioma cell lines. Results: Analysis of 15 tissue sample pairs identified 13 alterations conferring putative resistance were identified among nine paired samples (including mutations involving ERRFI1, BAP1, ANKHD1, and MAP2K1). We performed functional validation of mechanisms of resistance, including loss of NF1, PTEN, or CBL, in BRAFV600E-mutant glioma lines, and demonstrate they are capable of conferring resistance in vitro. Knockdown of CBL resulted in increased EGFR expression and phosphorylation, a possible mechanism for maintaining ERK signaling within the cell. Combination therapy with a MEKi or EGFR inhibitor was able to overcome resistance to BRAFi, in NF1 knockdown and CBL knockdown, respectively. Restoration of wild-type PTEN in B76 cells (PTEN-/-) restored sensitivity to BRAFi. We identified and validated CRAF upregulation as a mechanism of resistance in one resistant sample. RNA-seq analysis identified two emergent expression patterns in resistant samples, consistent with expression patterns of known glioma subtypes. Conclusions: Resistance mechanisms to BRAFi in glioma are varied and may predict effective precision combinations of targeted therapy, highlighting the importance of a personalized approach.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research