Does Human Factors and Ergonomics have anything to contribute to patient safety and healthcare practices? Most people would say yes. However, there is great controversy as to the form the contribution can take. Can this contribution be made in the form of standards, recommended practices, and principles of human factors? Or must our contribution consist of the dedication of human factors professionals within the domain of healthcare? Some assert that healthcare is so complex that simple guidelines and best practices will not solve any significant problems; all worthwhile problems require the in-depth, sophisticated techniques performed by human factors professionals. This session will present a debate that examines these issues. The results of the debate may help focus healthcare human factors toward the most productive approaches for influencing healthcare and patient safety.