Daptomycin pharmacokinetics in adult oncology patients with neutropenic fever

Joseph Bubalo, Myrna Y. Munar, Ganesh Cherala, Brandon Hayes-Lattin, Richard Maziarz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Daptomycin is the first antibacterial agent of the cyclic lipopeptides with in vitro bactericidal activity against gram-positive organisms, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and glycopeptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The pharmacokinetics of daptomycin were determined in 29 adult oncology patients with neutropenic fever. Serial blood samples were drawn at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after the initial intravenous infusion of 6 mg/kg of body weight daptomycin. Daptomycin total and free plasma concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Concentration-time data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods. The results (presented as means ± standard deviations and ranges, unless indicated otherwise) were as follows: the maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) was 49.04 ± 12.42 μg/ml (range, 21.54 to 75.20 μg/ml), the 24-h plasma concentration was 6.48 ± 5.31 μg/ml (range, 1.48 to 29.26 μg/ml), the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to infinity was 521.37 ± 523.53 μg·h/ml (range, 164.64 to 3155.11 μg·h/ml), the volume of distribution at steady state was 0.18 ± 0.05 liters/kg (range, 0.13 to 0.36 liters/kg), the clearance was 15.04 ± 6.09 ml/h/kg (range, 1.90 to 34.76 ml/h/kg), the half-life was 11.34 ± 14.15 h (range, 5.17 to 83.92 h), the mean residence time was 15.67 ± 20.66 h (range, 7.00 to 121.73 h), and the median time to Cmax was 0.6 h (range, 0.5 to 2.5 h). The fraction unbound in the plasma was 0.06 ± 0.02. All patients achieved Cmax/MIC and AUC from time zero to 24 h (AUC0-24)/MIC ratios for a bacteriostatic effect against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Twenty-seven patients (93%) achieved a Cmax/MIC ratio for a bacteriostatic effect against S. aureus, and 28 patients (97%) achieved an AUC0-24/MIC ratio for a bacteriostatic effect against S. aureus. Free plasma daptomycin concentrations were above the MIC for 50 to 100% of the dosing interval in 100% of patients for S. pneumoniae and 90% of patients for S. aureus. The median time to defervescence was 3 days from the start of daptomycin therapy. In summary, a 6-mg/kg intravenous infusion of daptomycin every 24 h was effective and well tolerated in neutropenic cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)428-434
Number of pages7
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Volume53
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2009

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Daptomycin
Fever
Pharmacokinetics
Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Intravenous Infusions
Lipopeptides
Methicillin Resistance
Glycopeptides
Staphylococcus
Half-Life
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Body Weight
Anti-Bacterial Agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Daptomycin pharmacokinetics in adult oncology patients with neutropenic fever. / Bubalo, Joseph; Munar, Myrna Y.; Cherala, Ganesh; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Maziarz, Richard.

In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 53, No. 2, 02.2009, p. 428-434.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Daptomycin is the first antibacterial agent of the cyclic lipopeptides with in vitro bactericidal activity against gram-positive organisms, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and glycopeptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The pharmacokinetics of daptomycin were determined in 29 adult oncology patients with neutropenic fever. Serial blood samples were drawn at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after the initial intravenous infusion of 6 mg/kg of body weight daptomycin. Daptomycin total and free plasma concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Concentration-time data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods. The results (presented as means ± standard deviations and ranges, unless indicated otherwise) were as follows: the maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) was 49.04 ± 12.42 μg/ml (range, 21.54 to 75.20 μg/ml), the 24-h plasma concentration was 6.48 ± 5.31 μg/ml (range, 1.48 to 29.26 μg/ml), the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to infinity was 521.37 ± 523.53 μg·h/ml (range, 164.64 to 3155.11 μg·h/ml), the volume of distribution at steady state was 0.18 ± 0.05 liters/kg (range, 0.13 to 0.36 liters/kg), the clearance was 15.04 ± 6.09 ml/h/kg (range, 1.90 to 34.76 ml/h/kg), the half-life was 11.34 ± 14.15 h (range, 5.17 to 83.92 h), the mean residence time was 15.67 ± 20.66 h (range, 7.00 to 121.73 h), and the median time to Cmax was 0.6 h (range, 0.5 to 2.5 h). The fraction unbound in the plasma was 0.06 ± 0.02. All patients achieved Cmax/MIC and AUC from time zero to 24 h (AUC0-24)/MIC ratios for a bacteriostatic effect against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Twenty-seven patients (93{\%}) achieved a Cmax/MIC ratio for a bacteriostatic effect against S. aureus, and 28 patients (97{\%}) achieved an AUC0-24/MIC ratio for a bacteriostatic effect against S. aureus. Free plasma daptomycin concentrations were above the MIC for 50 to 100{\%} of the dosing interval in 100{\%} of patients for S. pneumoniae and 90{\%} of patients for S. aureus. The median time to defervescence was 3 days from the start of daptomycin therapy. In summary, a 6-mg/kg intravenous infusion of daptomycin every 24 h was effective and well tolerated in neutropenic cancer patients.",
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