Cyclic voltammetry of dental amalgams

Noriko Horasawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Jack Ferracane, Shigeo Takahashi, Toru Okabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives. This study used cyclic voltammetry to examine the effect of the composition of dental amalgams on their electrochemical behavior, including reactions occurring outside of oral conditions. Methods. Amalgams (residual mercury 47.5%) were prepared using two low-copper (3 wt% Cu) powders and five high-copper powders (40-80 wt% Ag, 12-30 wt% Cu) with and without zinc (1.5 wt%). Cyclic voltammograms were obtained at 37°C in 1.0% NaCl scanning at 2 mV/s in the potential range from -1.5 V to +0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Results. During the anodic scans, AgCl and Hg2Cl2 films were formed on all amalgams except the one with only 40 wt% Ag. In all high-copper amalgams, a prominent Cu (oxidation) peak was found at -0.1 V. indicating the release of copper during corrosion. Zinc affected the oxidation process for both low- and high-copper amalgams. When zinc was absent, a peak for Sn2+ oxidation appeared at -0.4 V. When zinc was present, a Sn4+ oxidation peak was revealed at -0.6 V. In some amalgams, there was evidence of the selective corrosion (pitting corrosion) of tin and copper. In the lowest silver-content amalgam, no protective films were formed, which is indicative of its poor corrosion resistance. As expected, in all the low-copper amalgams, an extreme increase in current density was recorded immediately at 0 V, due to the release of tin from γ2. Significance. Cyclic voltammetry is useful for the rapid examination (less than an hour) of the electrochemical behavior of amalgams, specifically to obtain information on the formation of compounds and the sequences of electrochemical reactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)154-160
Number of pages7
JournalDental Materials
Volume12
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1996

Fingerprint

Dental amalgams
Dental Amalgam
Mercury amalgams
Cyclic voltammetry
Copper
Corrosion
Zinc
Oxidation
Tin
Powders
Copper corrosion
Copper powder
Mercury (metal)
Protective coatings
Pitting
Mercury
Silver
Corrosion resistance
Current density
Scanning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Horasawa, N., Nakajima, H., Ferracane, J., Takahashi, S., & Okabe, T. (1996). Cyclic voltammetry of dental amalgams. Dental Materials, 12(3), 154-160.

Cyclic voltammetry of dental amalgams. / Horasawa, Noriko; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ferracane, Jack; Takahashi, Shigeo; Okabe, Toru.

In: Dental Materials, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1996, p. 154-160.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Horasawa, N, Nakajima, H, Ferracane, J, Takahashi, S & Okabe, T 1996, 'Cyclic voltammetry of dental amalgams', Dental Materials, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 154-160.
Horasawa N, Nakajima H, Ferracane J, Takahashi S, Okabe T. Cyclic voltammetry of dental amalgams. Dental Materials. 1996;12(3):154-160.
Horasawa, Noriko ; Nakajima, Hiroshi ; Ferracane, Jack ; Takahashi, Shigeo ; Okabe, Toru. / Cyclic voltammetry of dental amalgams. In: Dental Materials. 1996 ; Vol. 12, No. 3. pp. 154-160.
@article{f197c3c48a7348379733490c4d17db94,
title = "Cyclic voltammetry of dental amalgams",
abstract = "Objectives. This study used cyclic voltammetry to examine the effect of the composition of dental amalgams on their electrochemical behavior, including reactions occurring outside of oral conditions. Methods. Amalgams (residual mercury 47.5{\%}) were prepared using two low-copper (3 wt{\%} Cu) powders and five high-copper powders (40-80 wt{\%} Ag, 12-30 wt{\%} Cu) with and without zinc (1.5 wt{\%}). Cyclic voltammograms were obtained at 37°C in 1.0{\%} NaCl scanning at 2 mV/s in the potential range from -1.5 V to +0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Results. During the anodic scans, AgCl and Hg2Cl2 films were formed on all amalgams except the one with only 40 wt{\%} Ag. In all high-copper amalgams, a prominent Cu (oxidation) peak was found at -0.1 V. indicating the release of copper during corrosion. Zinc affected the oxidation process for both low- and high-copper amalgams. When zinc was absent, a peak for Sn2+ oxidation appeared at -0.4 V. When zinc was present, a Sn4+ oxidation peak was revealed at -0.6 V. In some amalgams, there was evidence of the selective corrosion (pitting corrosion) of tin and copper. In the lowest silver-content amalgam, no protective films were formed, which is indicative of its poor corrosion resistance. As expected, in all the low-copper amalgams, an extreme increase in current density was recorded immediately at 0 V, due to the release of tin from γ2. Significance. Cyclic voltammetry is useful for the rapid examination (less than an hour) of the electrochemical behavior of amalgams, specifically to obtain information on the formation of compounds and the sequences of electrochemical reactions.",
author = "Noriko Horasawa and Hiroshi Nakajima and Jack Ferracane and Shigeo Takahashi and Toru Okabe",
year = "1996",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "12",
pages = "154--160",
journal = "Dental Materials",
issn = "0109-5641",
publisher = "Elsevier Science",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cyclic voltammetry of dental amalgams

AU - Horasawa, Noriko

AU - Nakajima, Hiroshi

AU - Ferracane, Jack

AU - Takahashi, Shigeo

AU - Okabe, Toru

PY - 1996

Y1 - 1996

N2 - Objectives. This study used cyclic voltammetry to examine the effect of the composition of dental amalgams on their electrochemical behavior, including reactions occurring outside of oral conditions. Methods. Amalgams (residual mercury 47.5%) were prepared using two low-copper (3 wt% Cu) powders and five high-copper powders (40-80 wt% Ag, 12-30 wt% Cu) with and without zinc (1.5 wt%). Cyclic voltammograms were obtained at 37°C in 1.0% NaCl scanning at 2 mV/s in the potential range from -1.5 V to +0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Results. During the anodic scans, AgCl and Hg2Cl2 films were formed on all amalgams except the one with only 40 wt% Ag. In all high-copper amalgams, a prominent Cu (oxidation) peak was found at -0.1 V. indicating the release of copper during corrosion. Zinc affected the oxidation process for both low- and high-copper amalgams. When zinc was absent, a peak for Sn2+ oxidation appeared at -0.4 V. When zinc was present, a Sn4+ oxidation peak was revealed at -0.6 V. In some amalgams, there was evidence of the selective corrosion (pitting corrosion) of tin and copper. In the lowest silver-content amalgam, no protective films were formed, which is indicative of its poor corrosion resistance. As expected, in all the low-copper amalgams, an extreme increase in current density was recorded immediately at 0 V, due to the release of tin from γ2. Significance. Cyclic voltammetry is useful for the rapid examination (less than an hour) of the electrochemical behavior of amalgams, specifically to obtain information on the formation of compounds and the sequences of electrochemical reactions.

AB - Objectives. This study used cyclic voltammetry to examine the effect of the composition of dental amalgams on their electrochemical behavior, including reactions occurring outside of oral conditions. Methods. Amalgams (residual mercury 47.5%) were prepared using two low-copper (3 wt% Cu) powders and five high-copper powders (40-80 wt% Ag, 12-30 wt% Cu) with and without zinc (1.5 wt%). Cyclic voltammograms were obtained at 37°C in 1.0% NaCl scanning at 2 mV/s in the potential range from -1.5 V to +0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Results. During the anodic scans, AgCl and Hg2Cl2 films were formed on all amalgams except the one with only 40 wt% Ag. In all high-copper amalgams, a prominent Cu (oxidation) peak was found at -0.1 V. indicating the release of copper during corrosion. Zinc affected the oxidation process for both low- and high-copper amalgams. When zinc was absent, a peak for Sn2+ oxidation appeared at -0.4 V. When zinc was present, a Sn4+ oxidation peak was revealed at -0.6 V. In some amalgams, there was evidence of the selective corrosion (pitting corrosion) of tin and copper. In the lowest silver-content amalgam, no protective films were formed, which is indicative of its poor corrosion resistance. As expected, in all the low-copper amalgams, an extreme increase in current density was recorded immediately at 0 V, due to the release of tin from γ2. Significance. Cyclic voltammetry is useful for the rapid examination (less than an hour) of the electrochemical behavior of amalgams, specifically to obtain information on the formation of compounds and the sequences of electrochemical reactions.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030133113&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030133113&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 154

EP - 160

JO - Dental Materials

JF - Dental Materials

SN - 0109-5641

IS - 3

ER -