This Review discusses the various types of non-coding oligonucleotides, which have garnered extensive interest as new alternatives for targeted cancer therapies over small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. These oligonucleotides can target any hallmark of cancer, no longer limited to so-called "druggable" targets. Thus, any identified gene that plays a key role in cancer progression or drug resistance can be exploited with oligonucleotides. Among them, small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are frequently utilized for gene silencing due to the robust and well established mechanism of RNA interference. Despite promising advantages, clinical translation of siRNAs is hindered by the lack of effective delivery platforms. This Review provides general criteria and consideration of nanoparticle development for systemic siRNA delivery. Different classes of nanoparticle candidates for siRNA delivery are discussed, and the progress in clinical trials for systemic cancer treatment is reviewed. Lastly, this Review presents HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2)-positive breast cancer as one example that could benefit significantly from siRNA technology. How siRNA-based therapeutics can overcome cancer resistance to such therapies is discussed.
- Breast cancer
- Targeted delivery
- Targeted therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging