Crush injuries resulting in traumatic rhabdomyolysis are an important cause of acute renal failure. Ischemia-reperfusion is the main mechanism of muscle injury. Intravascular volume depletion and renal hypoperfusion, combined with myoglobinuria, result in renal dysfunction. The infusion of intravenous fluids before extrication or soon after injury may lessen the severity of the crush syndrome. Serum CK levels can be used to screen patients with crush injuries to determine injury severity. Once intravascular volume has been stabilized, and the presence of urine flow has been confirmed, a forced mannitol-alkaline diuresis for prophylaxis against hyperkalemia and acute renal failure should be instituted. If an extremity compartment syndrome is suspected, one should have a low threshold for checking the intracompartmental pressures. Further studies are needed to demonstrate if any treatment regimen is truly superior to early, aggressive crystalloid infusion.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine