PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence of corneal endothelial transplantation (CET) and identify risk factors among patients with noninfectious ocular inflammation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Adult patients attending United States tertiary uveitis care facilities diagnosed with noninfectious ocular inflammation were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Time-to-event analysis was used to estimate the incidence of CET, including penetrating keratoplasty, Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty, or Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty procedures. The incidence of CET was calculated. Potential risk factors for CET were also evaluated using Cox regression, accounting for correlation between eyes of the same patient. RESULTS: Overall, 14,264 eyes met eligibility criteria for this analysis, with a median follow-up of 1.8 eye-years. The Kaplan-Meier estimated incidence of CET within 10 years was 1.10% (95% CI, 0.68%-1.53%). Risk factors for CET included age >60 years vs <40 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 16.5; 95% CI, 4.70-57.9), anterior uveitis and scleritis vs other types (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.46-6.05; and aHR, 4.14; 95% CI,1.28-13.4, respectively), topical corticosteroid treatment (aHR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.32-6.13), cataract surgery (aHR, 4.44; 95% CI, 1.73-11.4), tube shunt surgery (aHR, 11.9; 95% CI, 5.30-26.8), band keratopathy (aHR, 5.12; 95% CI, 2.34-11.2), and hypotony (aHR, 7.38; 95% CI, 3.14-17.4). Duration of uveitis, trabeculectomy, peripheral anterior synechia, and ocular hypertension had no significant association after multivariate adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ocular inflammation, CET occurred infrequently. Tube shunt surgery, hypotony, band keratopathy, cataract surgery, and anterior segment inflammation were associated with increased risk of undergoing CET; these factors likely are associated with endothelial cell damage.
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