Purpose/Objectives: To identify factors associated with screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatitis B, because hepatitis B can increase the risk of liver cancer. Data Sources: MEDLINE®, CINAHL ®, and PsycINFO databases from January 1998 to April 2012. Data Synthesis: The 23 reviewed studies included 15 descriptive, 2 intervention, 3 qualitative, 2 chart or medical record review, and 1 mixed method. Most studies used an investigator-developed instrument with no reported reliability. Inconsistent operational definitions for contributing factors to screening made it challenging to make comparisons. Conclusions: CRC and hepatitis B screening are consistently low among Vietnamese Americans. Contributing factors included sociodemographics, knowledge, cultural beliefs, and external factors. External factors such as having a regular place of care and a healthcare provider were crucial because they influenced adherence to screening recommendations. Use of a public media education plus healthcare provider model and a culturally tailored intervention using Vietnamese lay advisors appeared to be promising for improving CRC screening. Additional intervention studies are needed to increase screening. Implications for Nursing: Vietnamese is a fast-growing subgroup within the Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) group that may require targeted approaches to screening for disease. Future studies should focus on immigrants or those who were born in the United States (men and women) as disaggregated subgroups. Such research can inform culturally sensitive and appropriate interventions that may improve cancer screening rates. Knowledge Translation: Although Vietnamese is the fourth largest racial-ethnic subgroup within the AAPI group, the literature about contributing factors to CRC and hepatitis B screening is limited among this subgroup. CRC and hepatitis B screening are consistently low among Vietnamese Americans. Use of public media education plus a healthcare provider model and a culturally tailored intervention using Vietnamese lay advisors appears promising for improving CRC screening.
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