Contact allergy in children referred for patch testing

North American contact dermatitis group data, 2001-2004

Kathryn A. Zug, Daniel McGinley-Smith, Erin M. Warshaw, James S. Taylor, Robert L. Rietschel, Howard I. Maibach, Donald V. Belsito, Joseph F. Fowler, Frances Storrs, Vincent A. DeLeo, James G. Marks, C. G Toby Mathias, Melanie D. Pratt, Denis Sasseville

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

111 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To determine the frequency of positive and relevant patch tests in children referred for patch testing in North America; to compare results of patch testing children and adults; and to compare our results with international data on contact allergy in children. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analyses of North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) data from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2004. Patch test reactions for allergens that were positive and considered of clinical importance to the patient's eczematous problem were defined as being of current or past relevance. Setting: Clinical patch test data from 13 NACDG members, primarily a referral population. Patients: The pediatric population (hereafter referred to as "children") was defined as patients aged 0 to 18 years (n = 391). Patients 19 years and older constituted the comparison adult group (n = 9670). Main Outcome Measures: The frequency of positive patch test reactions and number of relevant ones. Secondary measures included the association of atopic markers, frequency of irritant reactions, and sources of relevant supplementary allergens. Results: No significant difference in the overall frequency of at least 1 relevant positive patch test reaction was noted in children (51.2%) compared with adults (54.1%). The most frequent positive reactions in children were to nickel (28.3%), cobalt chloride (17.9%), thimerosal (15.3%), neomycin sulfate (8.0%), gold sodium thiosulfate (7.7%), and fragrance mix (5.1%). For children aged 0 to 18 the most frequent relevant positive reactions were to nickel sulfate (26.0%), cobalt (12.4%), neomycin (4.4%), fragrance mix (4.1%), gold (3.6%), and quaternium 15 (3.6%). The frequency of irritant reactions in adults and children was similar. Of the children with a relevant positive reaction, 34.0% had atopic dermatitis included as one of their final diagnoses, compared with 11.2% of adults (P <.001). Fifteen percent and 39% of children had relevant allergens not included in the NACDG series and a commercially available skin patch test (T.R.U.E. TEST [thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous test], panel 1.1 and 2.1; Allerderm, Phoenix, Arizona), respectively. Conclusions: Adults and children in this group are equally likely to have allergic contact dermatitis; frequency of relevant allergen reactions differs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1329-1336
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Dermatology
Volume144
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2008

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Contact Dermatitis
Hypersensitivity
Patch Tests
Allergens
Neomycin
Irritants
Gold Sodium Thiosulfate
Thimerosal
Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Atopic Dermatitis
North America
Cobalt
Skin Tests
Nickel
Gold
Population
Referral and Consultation
Cross-Sectional Studies
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Pediatrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology

Cite this

Zug, K. A., McGinley-Smith, D., Warshaw, E. M., Taylor, J. S., Rietschel, R. L., Maibach, H. I., ... Sasseville, D. (2008). Contact allergy in children referred for patch testing: North American contact dermatitis group data, 2001-2004. Archives of Dermatology, 144(10), 1329-1336. https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.144.10.1329

Contact allergy in children referred for patch testing : North American contact dermatitis group data, 2001-2004. / Zug, Kathryn A.; McGinley-Smith, Daniel; Warshaw, Erin M.; Taylor, James S.; Rietschel, Robert L.; Maibach, Howard I.; Belsito, Donald V.; Fowler, Joseph F.; Storrs, Frances; DeLeo, Vincent A.; Marks, James G.; Mathias, C. G Toby; Pratt, Melanie D.; Sasseville, Denis.

In: Archives of Dermatology, Vol. 144, No. 10, 10.2008, p. 1329-1336.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zug, KA, McGinley-Smith, D, Warshaw, EM, Taylor, JS, Rietschel, RL, Maibach, HI, Belsito, DV, Fowler, JF, Storrs, F, DeLeo, VA, Marks, JG, Mathias, CGT, Pratt, MD & Sasseville, D 2008, 'Contact allergy in children referred for patch testing: North American contact dermatitis group data, 2001-2004', Archives of Dermatology, vol. 144, no. 10, pp. 1329-1336. https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.144.10.1329
Zug, Kathryn A. ; McGinley-Smith, Daniel ; Warshaw, Erin M. ; Taylor, James S. ; Rietschel, Robert L. ; Maibach, Howard I. ; Belsito, Donald V. ; Fowler, Joseph F. ; Storrs, Frances ; DeLeo, Vincent A. ; Marks, James G. ; Mathias, C. G Toby ; Pratt, Melanie D. ; Sasseville, Denis. / Contact allergy in children referred for patch testing : North American contact dermatitis group data, 2001-2004. In: Archives of Dermatology. 2008 ; Vol. 144, No. 10. pp. 1329-1336.
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abstract = "Objectives: To determine the frequency of positive and relevant patch tests in children referred for patch testing in North America; to compare results of patch testing children and adults; and to compare our results with international data on contact allergy in children. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analyses of North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) data from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2004. Patch test reactions for allergens that were positive and considered of clinical importance to the patient's eczematous problem were defined as being of current or past relevance. Setting: Clinical patch test data from 13 NACDG members, primarily a referral population. Patients: The pediatric population (hereafter referred to as {"}children{"}) was defined as patients aged 0 to 18 years (n = 391). Patients 19 years and older constituted the comparison adult group (n = 9670). Main Outcome Measures: The frequency of positive patch test reactions and number of relevant ones. Secondary measures included the association of atopic markers, frequency of irritant reactions, and sources of relevant supplementary allergens. Results: No significant difference in the overall frequency of at least 1 relevant positive patch test reaction was noted in children (51.2{\%}) compared with adults (54.1{\%}). The most frequent positive reactions in children were to nickel (28.3{\%}), cobalt chloride (17.9{\%}), thimerosal (15.3{\%}), neomycin sulfate (8.0{\%}), gold sodium thiosulfate (7.7{\%}), and fragrance mix (5.1{\%}). For children aged 0 to 18 the most frequent relevant positive reactions were to nickel sulfate (26.0{\%}), cobalt (12.4{\%}), neomycin (4.4{\%}), fragrance mix (4.1{\%}), gold (3.6{\%}), and quaternium 15 (3.6{\%}). The frequency of irritant reactions in adults and children was similar. Of the children with a relevant positive reaction, 34.0{\%} had atopic dermatitis included as one of their final diagnoses, compared with 11.2{\%} of adults (P <.001). Fifteen percent and 39{\%} of children had relevant allergens not included in the NACDG series and a commercially available skin patch test (T.R.U.E. TEST [thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous test], panel 1.1 and 2.1; Allerderm, Phoenix, Arizona), respectively. Conclusions: Adults and children in this group are equally likely to have allergic contact dermatitis; frequency of relevant allergen reactions differs.",
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T2 - North American contact dermatitis group data, 2001-2004

AU - Zug, Kathryn A.

AU - McGinley-Smith, Daniel

AU - Warshaw, Erin M.

AU - Taylor, James S.

AU - Rietschel, Robert L.

AU - Maibach, Howard I.

AU - Belsito, Donald V.

AU - Fowler, Joseph F.

AU - Storrs, Frances

AU - DeLeo, Vincent A.

AU - Marks, James G.

AU - Mathias, C. G Toby

AU - Pratt, Melanie D.

AU - Sasseville, Denis

PY - 2008/10

Y1 - 2008/10

N2 - Objectives: To determine the frequency of positive and relevant patch tests in children referred for patch testing in North America; to compare results of patch testing children and adults; and to compare our results with international data on contact allergy in children. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analyses of North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) data from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2004. Patch test reactions for allergens that were positive and considered of clinical importance to the patient's eczematous problem were defined as being of current or past relevance. Setting: Clinical patch test data from 13 NACDG members, primarily a referral population. Patients: The pediatric population (hereafter referred to as "children") was defined as patients aged 0 to 18 years (n = 391). Patients 19 years and older constituted the comparison adult group (n = 9670). Main Outcome Measures: The frequency of positive patch test reactions and number of relevant ones. Secondary measures included the association of atopic markers, frequency of irritant reactions, and sources of relevant supplementary allergens. Results: No significant difference in the overall frequency of at least 1 relevant positive patch test reaction was noted in children (51.2%) compared with adults (54.1%). The most frequent positive reactions in children were to nickel (28.3%), cobalt chloride (17.9%), thimerosal (15.3%), neomycin sulfate (8.0%), gold sodium thiosulfate (7.7%), and fragrance mix (5.1%). For children aged 0 to 18 the most frequent relevant positive reactions were to nickel sulfate (26.0%), cobalt (12.4%), neomycin (4.4%), fragrance mix (4.1%), gold (3.6%), and quaternium 15 (3.6%). The frequency of irritant reactions in adults and children was similar. Of the children with a relevant positive reaction, 34.0% had atopic dermatitis included as one of their final diagnoses, compared with 11.2% of adults (P <.001). Fifteen percent and 39% of children had relevant allergens not included in the NACDG series and a commercially available skin patch test (T.R.U.E. TEST [thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous test], panel 1.1 and 2.1; Allerderm, Phoenix, Arizona), respectively. Conclusions: Adults and children in this group are equally likely to have allergic contact dermatitis; frequency of relevant allergen reactions differs.

AB - Objectives: To determine the frequency of positive and relevant patch tests in children referred for patch testing in North America; to compare results of patch testing children and adults; and to compare our results with international data on contact allergy in children. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analyses of North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) data from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2004. Patch test reactions for allergens that were positive and considered of clinical importance to the patient's eczematous problem were defined as being of current or past relevance. Setting: Clinical patch test data from 13 NACDG members, primarily a referral population. Patients: The pediatric population (hereafter referred to as "children") was defined as patients aged 0 to 18 years (n = 391). Patients 19 years and older constituted the comparison adult group (n = 9670). Main Outcome Measures: The frequency of positive patch test reactions and number of relevant ones. Secondary measures included the association of atopic markers, frequency of irritant reactions, and sources of relevant supplementary allergens. Results: No significant difference in the overall frequency of at least 1 relevant positive patch test reaction was noted in children (51.2%) compared with adults (54.1%). The most frequent positive reactions in children were to nickel (28.3%), cobalt chloride (17.9%), thimerosal (15.3%), neomycin sulfate (8.0%), gold sodium thiosulfate (7.7%), and fragrance mix (5.1%). For children aged 0 to 18 the most frequent relevant positive reactions were to nickel sulfate (26.0%), cobalt (12.4%), neomycin (4.4%), fragrance mix (4.1%), gold (3.6%), and quaternium 15 (3.6%). The frequency of irritant reactions in adults and children was similar. Of the children with a relevant positive reaction, 34.0% had atopic dermatitis included as one of their final diagnoses, compared with 11.2% of adults (P <.001). Fifteen percent and 39% of children had relevant allergens not included in the NACDG series and a commercially available skin patch test (T.R.U.E. TEST [thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous test], panel 1.1 and 2.1; Allerderm, Phoenix, Arizona), respectively. Conclusions: Adults and children in this group are equally likely to have allergic contact dermatitis; frequency of relevant allergen reactions differs.

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