Consuming a balanced high fat diet for 16 weeks improves body composition, inflammation and vascular function parameters in obese premenopausal women

Heidi J. Silver, Hakmook Kang, Charles D. Keil, James A. Muldowney, Heidi Kocalis, Sergio Fazio, Douglas E. Vaughan, Kevin D. Niswender

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10 years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: A) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Methods Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9 g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Results Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5 ± 2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5 ± 2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1 L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD + placebo, HFD + stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD + linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Conclusions Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)562-573
Number of pages12
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Volume63
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

High Fat Diet
Body Composition
Blood Vessels
Inflammation
Stearates
Cardiovascular Diseases
Fats
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
Linoleic Acid
Interleukin-1
Fatty Acids
L 012
Placebos
Dietary Fats
Oleic Acid
Insulin Resistance
Coronary Artery Disease
Obesity

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular
  • Endothelial
  • Fatty acid
  • Inflammation
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Consuming a balanced high fat diet for 16 weeks improves body composition, inflammation and vascular function parameters in obese premenopausal women. / Silver, Heidi J.; Kang, Hakmook; Keil, Charles D.; Muldowney, James A.; Kocalis, Heidi; Fazio, Sergio; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Niswender, Kevin D.

In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, Vol. 63, No. 4, 2014, p. 562-573.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Silver, Heidi J. ; Kang, Hakmook ; Keil, Charles D. ; Muldowney, James A. ; Kocalis, Heidi ; Fazio, Sergio ; Vaughan, Douglas E. ; Niswender, Kevin D. / Consuming a balanced high fat diet for 16 weeks improves body composition, inflammation and vascular function parameters in obese premenopausal women. In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. 2014 ; Vol. 63, No. 4. pp. 562-573.
@article{26b4d634705948469d02f58f405d389c,
title = "Consuming a balanced high fat diet for 16 weeks improves body composition, inflammation and vascular function parameters in obese premenopausal women",
abstract = "Objective Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10 years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: A) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Methods Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9 g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Results Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6{\%}), body composition ({\%}fat: ↓2.5 ± 2.1{\%}; {\%}lean: ↑2.5 ± 2.1{\%}), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1 L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD + placebo, HFD + stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74{\%}) and HFD + linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31{\%}). Conclusions Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach.",
keywords = "Cardiovascular, Endothelial, Fatty acid, Inflammation, Obesity",
author = "Silver, {Heidi J.} and Hakmook Kang and Keil, {Charles D.} and Muldowney, {James A.} and Heidi Kocalis and Sergio Fazio and Vaughan, {Douglas E.} and Niswender, {Kevin D.}",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1016/j.metabol.2014.01.004",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "63",
pages = "562--573",
journal = "Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental",
issn = "0026-0495",
publisher = "W.B. Saunders Ltd",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Consuming a balanced high fat diet for 16 weeks improves body composition, inflammation and vascular function parameters in obese premenopausal women

AU - Silver, Heidi J.

AU - Kang, Hakmook

AU - Keil, Charles D.

AU - Muldowney, James A.

AU - Kocalis, Heidi

AU - Fazio, Sergio

AU - Vaughan, Douglas E.

AU - Niswender, Kevin D.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Objective Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10 years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: A) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Methods Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9 g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Results Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5 ± 2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5 ± 2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1 L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD + placebo, HFD + stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD + linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Conclusions Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach.

AB - Objective Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10 years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: A) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Methods Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9 g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Results Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5 ± 2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5 ± 2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1 L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD + placebo, HFD + stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD + linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Conclusions Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach.

KW - Cardiovascular

KW - Endothelial

KW - Fatty acid

KW - Inflammation

KW - Obesity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84896492994&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84896492994&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.01.004

DO - 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.01.004

M3 - Article

VL - 63

SP - 562

EP - 573

JO - Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

JF - Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

SN - 0026-0495

IS - 4

ER -