Construction and analysis of a semi-quantitative energy profile for the reaction catalyzed by the radical enzyme galactose oxidase

Rebekka M. Wachter, Bruce Branchaud

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28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Galactose oxidase (GOase) is a mononuclear type 2 copper enzyme which oxidizes primary alcohols to aldehydes using molecular oxygen (RCH2OH + O2 = RCHO + H2O2). An unusual crosslink between tyrosine 272 and cysteine 228 provides a modified tyrosine radical site which acts as a ligand for the active site copper and is believed to act as a one-electron redox center. The single active site copper is believed to act as a second one-electron redox center. The use of the tyrosine one-electron redox center and the copper one-electron redox center allows removal of two electrons from alcohol substrate for subsequent transfer to molecular oxygen. Previously, we and others have proposed a detailed step-by-step radical mechanism for the reaction catalyzed by galactose oxidase. The catalytic cycle can be divided into two half reactions. The first half reaction entails transfer of two electrons and two protons from the alcohol substrate to the enzyme to form aldehyde product and two-electron-reduced enzyme (one electron at the tyrosine center and one at the copper center). The second half reaction entails transfer of two electrons and two protons from the two-electron-reduced enzyme to O2 to form H2O2 product and regenerate fully oxidized catalytically active enzyme ready for another catalytic cycle. In this paper, we describe the construction of a semi-quantitative energy profile for this radical mechanism. Several significant points emerge from this analysis. One point is the prediction that galactose oxidase should have an unusually low redox potential for copper, to our knowledge lower than any other redox active copper protein. Another point is that the distorted or entatic copper site causes the unusually low redox potential. A final point is that crosslinking of tyrosine 272 and cysteine 228 alters the redox properties of the tyrosine center to enhance catalysis compared to what would be expected for a normal tyrosine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-54
Number of pages12
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology
Volume1384
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 23 1998
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Galactose Oxidase
Oxidation-Reduction
Electrons
Copper
Tyrosine
Enzymes
Molecular oxygen
Alcohols
Aldehydes
Cysteine
Protons
Catalytic Domain
Oxygen
Substrates
Catalysis
Crosslinking

Keywords

  • Energy profile
  • Enzymology
  • Galactose oxidase
  • Radical mechanism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

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title = "Construction and analysis of a semi-quantitative energy profile for the reaction catalyzed by the radical enzyme galactose oxidase",
abstract = "Galactose oxidase (GOase) is a mononuclear type 2 copper enzyme which oxidizes primary alcohols to aldehydes using molecular oxygen (RCH2OH + O2 = RCHO + H2O2). An unusual crosslink between tyrosine 272 and cysteine 228 provides a modified tyrosine radical site which acts as a ligand for the active site copper and is believed to act as a one-electron redox center. The single active site copper is believed to act as a second one-electron redox center. The use of the tyrosine one-electron redox center and the copper one-electron redox center allows removal of two electrons from alcohol substrate for subsequent transfer to molecular oxygen. Previously, we and others have proposed a detailed step-by-step radical mechanism for the reaction catalyzed by galactose oxidase. The catalytic cycle can be divided into two half reactions. The first half reaction entails transfer of two electrons and two protons from the alcohol substrate to the enzyme to form aldehyde product and two-electron-reduced enzyme (one electron at the tyrosine center and one at the copper center). The second half reaction entails transfer of two electrons and two protons from the two-electron-reduced enzyme to O2 to form H2O2 product and regenerate fully oxidized catalytically active enzyme ready for another catalytic cycle. In this paper, we describe the construction of a semi-quantitative energy profile for this radical mechanism. Several significant points emerge from this analysis. One point is the prediction that galactose oxidase should have an unusually low redox potential for copper, to our knowledge lower than any other redox active copper protein. Another point is that the distorted or entatic copper site causes the unusually low redox potential. A final point is that crosslinking of tyrosine 272 and cysteine 228 alters the redox properties of the tyrosine center to enhance catalysis compared to what would be expected for a normal tyrosine.",
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T1 - Construction and analysis of a semi-quantitative energy profile for the reaction catalyzed by the radical enzyme galactose oxidase

AU - Wachter, Rebekka M.

AU - Branchaud, Bruce

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N2 - Galactose oxidase (GOase) is a mononuclear type 2 copper enzyme which oxidizes primary alcohols to aldehydes using molecular oxygen (RCH2OH + O2 = RCHO + H2O2). An unusual crosslink between tyrosine 272 and cysteine 228 provides a modified tyrosine radical site which acts as a ligand for the active site copper and is believed to act as a one-electron redox center. The single active site copper is believed to act as a second one-electron redox center. The use of the tyrosine one-electron redox center and the copper one-electron redox center allows removal of two electrons from alcohol substrate for subsequent transfer to molecular oxygen. Previously, we and others have proposed a detailed step-by-step radical mechanism for the reaction catalyzed by galactose oxidase. The catalytic cycle can be divided into two half reactions. The first half reaction entails transfer of two electrons and two protons from the alcohol substrate to the enzyme to form aldehyde product and two-electron-reduced enzyme (one electron at the tyrosine center and one at the copper center). The second half reaction entails transfer of two electrons and two protons from the two-electron-reduced enzyme to O2 to form H2O2 product and regenerate fully oxidized catalytically active enzyme ready for another catalytic cycle. In this paper, we describe the construction of a semi-quantitative energy profile for this radical mechanism. Several significant points emerge from this analysis. One point is the prediction that galactose oxidase should have an unusually low redox potential for copper, to our knowledge lower than any other redox active copper protein. Another point is that the distorted or entatic copper site causes the unusually low redox potential. A final point is that crosslinking of tyrosine 272 and cysteine 228 alters the redox properties of the tyrosine center to enhance catalysis compared to what would be expected for a normal tyrosine.

AB - Galactose oxidase (GOase) is a mononuclear type 2 copper enzyme which oxidizes primary alcohols to aldehydes using molecular oxygen (RCH2OH + O2 = RCHO + H2O2). An unusual crosslink between tyrosine 272 and cysteine 228 provides a modified tyrosine radical site which acts as a ligand for the active site copper and is believed to act as a one-electron redox center. The single active site copper is believed to act as a second one-electron redox center. The use of the tyrosine one-electron redox center and the copper one-electron redox center allows removal of two electrons from alcohol substrate for subsequent transfer to molecular oxygen. Previously, we and others have proposed a detailed step-by-step radical mechanism for the reaction catalyzed by galactose oxidase. The catalytic cycle can be divided into two half reactions. The first half reaction entails transfer of two electrons and two protons from the alcohol substrate to the enzyme to form aldehyde product and two-electron-reduced enzyme (one electron at the tyrosine center and one at the copper center). The second half reaction entails transfer of two electrons and two protons from the two-electron-reduced enzyme to O2 to form H2O2 product and regenerate fully oxidized catalytically active enzyme ready for another catalytic cycle. In this paper, we describe the construction of a semi-quantitative energy profile for this radical mechanism. Several significant points emerge from this analysis. One point is the prediction that galactose oxidase should have an unusually low redox potential for copper, to our knowledge lower than any other redox active copper protein. Another point is that the distorted or entatic copper site causes the unusually low redox potential. A final point is that crosslinking of tyrosine 272 and cysteine 228 alters the redox properties of the tyrosine center to enhance catalysis compared to what would be expected for a normal tyrosine.

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