Congenital perilymphatic fistula is an abnormal communication between the inner ear and middle ear. Inner ear anomalies have been described on computed tomography scans. Middle ear anomalies have been found at surgery; the most frequent are anomalies of the stapes and round window. This retrospective study describes the appearance of the inner and middle ear on computed tomography scans, and of the middle ear at surgery, in 10 patients (15 ears) in whom perilymphatic fistula was found at surgery. Twelve of 15 stapes were abnormal at surgery; 4 of these 12 (33%) could be seen on computed tomography scans. Two stapes normal at surgery were normal on computed tomography. Three round windows were abnormal at surgery; none of these was seen on computed tomography scans. There were also four dysplastic cochleas, four dysplastic vestibules, and three dilated vestibular aqueducts. Computed tomography scans identified an abnormal inner ear, middle ear, or both in 8 (53%) of the 15 ears with perilymphatic fistula. An inner ear or middle ear anomaly on computed tomography may heighten clinical suspicion of congenital perilymphatic fistula.
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