Amniotic fluid (AF) is a significant contributor to fetal health and constitutes a potential rich source of biomarkers for diagnosis of maternal and fetal disorders. In this study, we performed a comprehensive survey of the proteins expressed in AF, combining gel and liquid-based fractionation approaches coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis. Two-dimensional Liquid Chromatography (2D-LC) analysis identified 118 nonredundant proteins with high confidence. One- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion identified 101 proteins. Combining both sets resulted in 219 proteins, of which 96 are unique to AF; 70, 18, and 35 proteins are present in serum, cervico-vaginal fluid, and all three fluids, respectively. Fluorescence two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) comparison of first-, second-, and third-trimester AF samples revealed that maximal differences in the relative abundance of AF proteins occur between the first and second trimesters. A systematic analysis of proteins present both in AF and maternal serum could lead to the development of new noninvasive diagnostic procedures to monitor fetal status.
- Amniotic fluid
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