Comparison of four Doppler echocardiographic methods for calculating pulmonary-to-systemic shunt flow ratios in patients with ventricular septal defect

Ayman F. Sabry, Mark Reller, Gary (Michael) Silberbach, Mary J. Rice, David Sahn

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Abstract

Several methods currently exist for quantifying pulmonary (Qp) and systemic (Qs) shunt flow using Doppler echocardiography, although none is widely utilized. In this study, 39 patients (age 2 months to 12 years, mean 2.1 years) underwent an echocardiographic examination within 1 month of Qp:Qs shunt flow determination by oximetry at catheterization. Qp:Qs was determined by 4 methods that utilized: (1) velocity time integrals and luminal areas to estimate volume flow of the pulmonary artery and aorta; (2) the square of the ratios of pulmonary artery to aorta, multiplied by the ratio of pulmonary to aortic peak flow velocities; (3) inclusion of mitral and tricuspid valve volume flow to pulmonary and aortic volume flow; and (4) ventricular septal defect (VSD) diameter and velocity time integral to calculate left-to-right shunt, which, when added to aortic volume flow (Qs), can be used to estimate Qp. Each of the first 3 methods was statistically correlated to the oximelry Qp:Qs, with r values ranging from 0.54 to 0.66 (p <0.001). However, the fourth method, based on direct computation of flow across the VSD, had the best correlation to catheterization data (r = 0.82), and further improved when 7 patients with a large VSD (>9 mm/m2), all of whom had bidirectional shunting, were removed (r = 0.90). Thus, we concluded that this latter method demonstrated the best correlation to catheterization-derived shunt flow data, and because this method is somewhat less labor-intensive than the others, should provide clinically useful data well suited for serial evaluation in infants and children with VSD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)611-614
Number of pages4
JournalThe American Journal of Cardiology
Volume75
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 1995

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Ventricular Heart Septal Defects
Lung
Catheterization
Pulmonary Artery
Aorta
Tricuspid Valve
Oximetry
Doppler Echocardiography
Mitral Valve

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

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title = "Comparison of four Doppler echocardiographic methods for calculating pulmonary-to-systemic shunt flow ratios in patients with ventricular septal defect",
abstract = "Several methods currently exist for quantifying pulmonary (Qp) and systemic (Qs) shunt flow using Doppler echocardiography, although none is widely utilized. In this study, 39 patients (age 2 months to 12 years, mean 2.1 years) underwent an echocardiographic examination within 1 month of Qp:Qs shunt flow determination by oximetry at catheterization. Qp:Qs was determined by 4 methods that utilized: (1) velocity time integrals and luminal areas to estimate volume flow of the pulmonary artery and aorta; (2) the square of the ratios of pulmonary artery to aorta, multiplied by the ratio of pulmonary to aortic peak flow velocities; (3) inclusion of mitral and tricuspid valve volume flow to pulmonary and aortic volume flow; and (4) ventricular septal defect (VSD) diameter and velocity time integral to calculate left-to-right shunt, which, when added to aortic volume flow (Qs), can be used to estimate Qp. Each of the first 3 methods was statistically correlated to the oximelry Qp:Qs, with r values ranging from 0.54 to 0.66 (p <0.001). However, the fourth method, based on direct computation of flow across the VSD, had the best correlation to catheterization data (r = 0.82), and further improved when 7 patients with a large VSD (>9 mm/m2), all of whom had bidirectional shunting, were removed (r = 0.90). Thus, we concluded that this latter method demonstrated the best correlation to catheterization-derived shunt flow data, and because this method is somewhat less labor-intensive than the others, should provide clinically useful data well suited for serial evaluation in infants and children with VSD.",
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T1 - Comparison of four Doppler echocardiographic methods for calculating pulmonary-to-systemic shunt flow ratios in patients with ventricular septal defect

AU - Sabry, Ayman F.

AU - Reller, Mark

AU - Silberbach, Gary (Michael)

AU - Rice, Mary J.

AU - Sahn, David

PY - 1995/3/15

Y1 - 1995/3/15

N2 - Several methods currently exist for quantifying pulmonary (Qp) and systemic (Qs) shunt flow using Doppler echocardiography, although none is widely utilized. In this study, 39 patients (age 2 months to 12 years, mean 2.1 years) underwent an echocardiographic examination within 1 month of Qp:Qs shunt flow determination by oximetry at catheterization. Qp:Qs was determined by 4 methods that utilized: (1) velocity time integrals and luminal areas to estimate volume flow of the pulmonary artery and aorta; (2) the square of the ratios of pulmonary artery to aorta, multiplied by the ratio of pulmonary to aortic peak flow velocities; (3) inclusion of mitral and tricuspid valve volume flow to pulmonary and aortic volume flow; and (4) ventricular septal defect (VSD) diameter and velocity time integral to calculate left-to-right shunt, which, when added to aortic volume flow (Qs), can be used to estimate Qp. Each of the first 3 methods was statistically correlated to the oximelry Qp:Qs, with r values ranging from 0.54 to 0.66 (p <0.001). However, the fourth method, based on direct computation of flow across the VSD, had the best correlation to catheterization data (r = 0.82), and further improved when 7 patients with a large VSD (>9 mm/m2), all of whom had bidirectional shunting, were removed (r = 0.90). Thus, we concluded that this latter method demonstrated the best correlation to catheterization-derived shunt flow data, and because this method is somewhat less labor-intensive than the others, should provide clinically useful data well suited for serial evaluation in infants and children with VSD.

AB - Several methods currently exist for quantifying pulmonary (Qp) and systemic (Qs) shunt flow using Doppler echocardiography, although none is widely utilized. In this study, 39 patients (age 2 months to 12 years, mean 2.1 years) underwent an echocardiographic examination within 1 month of Qp:Qs shunt flow determination by oximetry at catheterization. Qp:Qs was determined by 4 methods that utilized: (1) velocity time integrals and luminal areas to estimate volume flow of the pulmonary artery and aorta; (2) the square of the ratios of pulmonary artery to aorta, multiplied by the ratio of pulmonary to aortic peak flow velocities; (3) inclusion of mitral and tricuspid valve volume flow to pulmonary and aortic volume flow; and (4) ventricular septal defect (VSD) diameter and velocity time integral to calculate left-to-right shunt, which, when added to aortic volume flow (Qs), can be used to estimate Qp. Each of the first 3 methods was statistically correlated to the oximelry Qp:Qs, with r values ranging from 0.54 to 0.66 (p <0.001). However, the fourth method, based on direct computation of flow across the VSD, had the best correlation to catheterization data (r = 0.82), and further improved when 7 patients with a large VSD (>9 mm/m2), all of whom had bidirectional shunting, were removed (r = 0.90). Thus, we concluded that this latter method demonstrated the best correlation to catheterization-derived shunt flow data, and because this method is somewhat less labor-intensive than the others, should provide clinically useful data well suited for serial evaluation in infants and children with VSD.

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