Commonalities and Distinctions Among Mechanisms of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs

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14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Alcohol abuse is comorbid with abuse of many other drugs, some with similar pharmacology and others quite different. This leads to the hypothesis of an underlying, unitary dysfunctional neurobiological basis for substance abuse risk and consequences. Methods: In this review, we discuss commonalities and distinctions of addiction to alcohol and other drugs. We focus on recent advances in preclinical studies using rodent models of drug self-administration. Results: While there are specific behavioral and molecular manifestations common to alcohol, psychostimulant, opioid, and nicotine dependence, attempts to propose a unifying theory of the addictions inevitably face details where distinctions are found among classes of drugs. Conclusions: For alcohol, versus other drugs of abuse, we discuss and compare advances in: (i) neurocircuitry important for the different stages of drug dependence; (ii) transcriptomics and genetical genomics; and (iii) enduring effects, noting in particular the contributions of behavioral genetics and animal models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1863-1877
Number of pages15
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume39
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015

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Alcoholism
Alcohols
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Substance-Related Disorders
Behavioral Genetics
Tobacco Use Disorder
Self Administration
Genetic Models
Street Drugs
Genomics
Opioid Analgesics
Rodentia
Nicotine
Animal Models
Pharmacology
Animals

Keywords

  • Addiction
  • Alcohol
  • Animal Models
  • Cocaine
  • Drugs of Abuse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Toxicology

Cite this

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abstract = "Background: Alcohol abuse is comorbid with abuse of many other drugs, some with similar pharmacology and others quite different. This leads to the hypothesis of an underlying, unitary dysfunctional neurobiological basis for substance abuse risk and consequences. Methods: In this review, we discuss commonalities and distinctions of addiction to alcohol and other drugs. We focus on recent advances in preclinical studies using rodent models of drug self-administration. Results: While there are specific behavioral and molecular manifestations common to alcohol, psychostimulant, opioid, and nicotine dependence, attempts to propose a unifying theory of the addictions inevitably face details where distinctions are found among classes of drugs. Conclusions: For alcohol, versus other drugs of abuse, we discuss and compare advances in: (i) neurocircuitry important for the different stages of drug dependence; (ii) transcriptomics and genetical genomics; and (iii) enduring effects, noting in particular the contributions of behavioral genetics and animal models.",
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AU - Janowsky, Aaron

AU - Crabbe, John Jr

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N2 - Background: Alcohol abuse is comorbid with abuse of many other drugs, some with similar pharmacology and others quite different. This leads to the hypothesis of an underlying, unitary dysfunctional neurobiological basis for substance abuse risk and consequences. Methods: In this review, we discuss commonalities and distinctions of addiction to alcohol and other drugs. We focus on recent advances in preclinical studies using rodent models of drug self-administration. Results: While there are specific behavioral and molecular manifestations common to alcohol, psychostimulant, opioid, and nicotine dependence, attempts to propose a unifying theory of the addictions inevitably face details where distinctions are found among classes of drugs. Conclusions: For alcohol, versus other drugs of abuse, we discuss and compare advances in: (i) neurocircuitry important for the different stages of drug dependence; (ii) transcriptomics and genetical genomics; and (iii) enduring effects, noting in particular the contributions of behavioral genetics and animal models.

AB - Background: Alcohol abuse is comorbid with abuse of many other drugs, some with similar pharmacology and others quite different. This leads to the hypothesis of an underlying, unitary dysfunctional neurobiological basis for substance abuse risk and consequences. Methods: In this review, we discuss commonalities and distinctions of addiction to alcohol and other drugs. We focus on recent advances in preclinical studies using rodent models of drug self-administration. Results: While there are specific behavioral and molecular manifestations common to alcohol, psychostimulant, opioid, and nicotine dependence, attempts to propose a unifying theory of the addictions inevitably face details where distinctions are found among classes of drugs. Conclusions: For alcohol, versus other drugs of abuse, we discuss and compare advances in: (i) neurocircuitry important for the different stages of drug dependence; (ii) transcriptomics and genetical genomics; and (iii) enduring effects, noting in particular the contributions of behavioral genetics and animal models.

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