Combining formal and informal caregiving roles: The psychosocial implications of double- and triple-duty care

Nicole Depasquale, Kelly D. Davis, Steven H. Zarit, Phyllis Moen, Leslie Hammer, David M. Almeida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives. Women who combine formal and informal caregiving roles represent a unique, understudied population. In the literature, healthcare employees who simultaneously provide unpaid elder care at home have been referred to as double-duty caregivers. The present study broadens this perspective by examining the psychosocial implications of double-duty child care (child care only), double-duty elder care (elder care only), and triple-duty care (both child care and elder care or "sandwiched" care). Method. Drawing from the Work, Family, and Health Study, we focus on a large sample of women working in nursing homes in the United States (n = 1,399). We use multiple regression analysis and analysis of covariance tests to examine a range of psychosocial implications associated with double- and triple-duty care. Results. Compared with nonfamily caregivers, double-duty child caregivers indicated greater family-to-work conflict and poorer partner relationship quality. Double-duty elder caregivers reported more family-to-work conflict, perceived stress, and psychological distress, whereas triple-duty caregivers indicated poorer psychosocial functioning overall. Discussion. Relative to their counterparts without family caregiving roles, women with combined caregiving roles reported poorer psychosocial well-being. Additional research on women with combined caregiving roles, especially triple-duty caregivers, should be a priority amidst an aging population, older workforce, and growing number of working caregivers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-211
Number of pages11
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Volume71
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Double-duty care
  • Healthcare employees
  • Psychosocial well-being
  • Sandwiched generation
  • Triple-duty care
  • Working caregivers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Gerontology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Social Psychology

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