Combined effects of smoking, coffee, and NSAIDs on Parkinson's disease risk

Karen M. Powers, Denise M. Kay, Stewart A. Factor, Cyrus P. Zabetian, Donald S. Higgins, Ali Samii, John G. Nutt, Alida Griffith, Berta Leis, John W. Roberts, Erica D. Martinez, Jennifer S. Montimurro, Harvey Checkoway, Haydeh Payami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

115 Scopus citations


Inverse associations of Parkinson's disease (PD) with cigarette smoking, coffee drinking, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use have been reported individually, but their joint effects have not been examined. To quantify associations with PD for the individual, two-way and three-way combinations of these factors, a case-control association study with 1,186 PD patients and 928 controls was conducted. The study setting was the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire regarding smoking, coffee, and NSAID consumption. Odds ratios were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Smoking, coffee, and over the counter NSAID use as individual factors exhibited significantly reduced risks of 20% to 30%. The two-way and three-way combinations were associated with risk reduction of 37% to 49%, and 62%, respectively. Smoking and coffee exhibited significant inverse risk trends with increasing cumulative exposures, suggesting dose-response relations. With respect to the combination of all three exposures, persons who were at the highest exposure strata for smoking and coffee and used NSAIDs had an estimated 87% reduction in risk (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.06-0.29). Whether this finding reflects true biologic protection needs to be investigated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)88-95
Number of pages8
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 15 2008


  • Coffee
  • NSAIDs
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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