Colorectal Cancer Screening: Recommendations for Physicians and Patients from the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer

Douglas K. Rex, C. Richard Boland, Jason A. Dominitz, Francis M. Giardiello, David A. Johnson, Tonya Kaltenbach, Theodore R. Levin, David Lieberman, Douglas J. Robertson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

99 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This document updates the colorectal cancer (CRC) screening recommendations of the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force of Colorectal Cancer (MSTF), which represents the American College of Gastroenterology, the American Gastroenterological Association, and The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. CRC screening tests are ranked in 3 tiers based on performance features, costs, and practical considerations. The first-tier tests are colonoscopy every 10 years and annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT). Colonoscopy and FIT are recommended as the cornerstones of screening regardless of how screening is offered. Thus, in a sequential approach based on colonoscopy offered first, FIT should be offered to patients who decline colonoscopy. Colonoscopy and FIT are recommended as tests of choice when multiple options are presented as alternatives. A risk-stratified approach is also appropriate, with FIT screening in populations with an estimated low prevalence of advanced neoplasia and colonoscopy screening in high prevalence populations. The second-tier tests include CT colonography every 5 years, the FIT-fecal DNA test every 3 years, and flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years. These tests are appropriate screening tests, but each has disadvantages relative to the tier 1 tests. Because of limited evidence and current obstacles to use, capsule colonoscopy every 5 years is a third-tier test. We suggest that the Septin9 serum assay (Epigenomics, Seattle, Wash) not be used for screening. Screening should begin at age 50 years in average-risk persons, except in African Americans in whom limited evidence supports screening at 45 years. CRC incidence is rising in persons under age 50, and thorough diagnostic evaluation of young persons with suspected colorectal bleeding is recommended. Discontinuation of screening should be considered when persons up to date with screening, who have prior negative screening (particularly colonoscopy), reach age 75 or have <10 years of life expectancy. Persons without prior screening should be considered for screening up to age 85, depending on age and comorbidities. Persons with a family history of CRC or a documented advanced adenoma in a first-degree relative age <60 years or 2 first-degree relatives with these findings at any age are recommended to undergo screening by colonoscopy every 5 years, beginning 10 years before the age at diagnosis of the youngest affected relative or age 40, whichever is earlier. Persons with a single first-degree relative diagnosed at ≥60 years with CRC or an advanced adenoma can be offered average-risk screening options beginning at age 40 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1016-1030
Number of pages15
JournalAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume112
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

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Advisory Committees
Colonoscopy
Early Detection of Cancer
Colorectal Neoplasms
Physicians
Adenoma
Computed Tomographic Colonography
Sigmoidoscopy
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Life Expectancy
Epigenomics
African Americans
Population
Capsules
Comorbidity
Hemorrhage
Costs and Cost Analysis
DNA
Incidence
Serum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Rex, D. K., Boland, C. R., Dominitz, J. A., Giardiello, F. M., Johnson, D. A., Kaltenbach, T., ... Robertson, D. J. (2017). Colorectal Cancer Screening: Recommendations for Physicians and Patients from the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 112(7), 1016-1030. https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2017.174

Colorectal Cancer Screening : Recommendations for Physicians and Patients from the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. / Rex, Douglas K.; Boland, C. Richard; Dominitz, Jason A.; Giardiello, Francis M.; Johnson, David A.; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Levin, Theodore R.; Lieberman, David; Robertson, Douglas J.

In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 112, No. 7, 01.07.2017, p. 1016-1030.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Rex, DK, Boland, CR, Dominitz, JA, Giardiello, FM, Johnson, DA, Kaltenbach, T, Levin, TR, Lieberman, D & Robertson, DJ 2017, 'Colorectal Cancer Screening: Recommendations for Physicians and Patients from the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer', American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 1016-1030. https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2017.174
Rex, Douglas K. ; Boland, C. Richard ; Dominitz, Jason A. ; Giardiello, Francis M. ; Johnson, David A. ; Kaltenbach, Tonya ; Levin, Theodore R. ; Lieberman, David ; Robertson, Douglas J. / Colorectal Cancer Screening : Recommendations for Physicians and Patients from the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. In: American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2017 ; Vol. 112, No. 7. pp. 1016-1030.
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