Objectives To determine the association between unique domains of cognitive impairment and community integration in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to determine the contributions of cognitive impairment to community integration beyond the influence of demographic and clinical variables. Design Cross-sectional analysis of objective neuropsychological assessment and self-report data. Data were collected during baseline assessment of a randomized, multisite controlled trial of ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment in MS. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the association between subjective and objective measures of cognitive impairment and 3 domains of community integration, adjusting for relevant covariates. Setting Two Veterans Affairs medical center MS clinics. Participants Adults (N=121; ages 24-65y) with a confirmed MS diagnosis. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were scores on the Home Integration (CIQ-H), Social Integration (CIQ-S), and Productivity (CIQ-P) domains of the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ). Results Cognitive impairment was associated with lower scores on the CIQ-H and CIQ-S, but not the CIQ-P. Greater levels of subjective cognitive impairment were associated with lower scores on the CIQ-H and CIQ-S. Greater levels of objective cognitive impairment, specifically slower processing speed and poorer inhibitory control, were related to lower CIQ-S scores. Subjective and objective measures of cognitive impairment were significantly and independently associated with CIQ-S. Conclusions Objective cognitive impairment may interfere with participation in social activities. Subjective cognitive impairment is also important to assess, because individuals who perceive themselves to be cognitively impaired may be less likely to participate in both home and social activities. Clinical interventions to enhance community integration in individuals with MS may benefit from addressing objective and subjective cognitive impairment by integrating cognitive rehabilitation approaches with self-efficacy-enhancing strategies.
- Community integration
- Multiple sclerosis
- Neurobehavioral manifestations
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation