Cognition, function, and prevalent dementia in centenarians and near-centenarians: An individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of 18 studies

Yvonne Leung, Nir Barzilai, Agnieszka Batko-Szwaczka, Nina Beker, Kathrin Boerner, Carol Brayne, Henry Brodaty, Karen Siu Lan Cheung, María M. Corrada, John D. Crawford, Alessia A. Galbussera, Yasuyuki Gondo, Henne Holstege, Marc Hulsman, Yoshiko Lily Ishioka, Daniela Jopp, Claudia H. Kawas, Jeff Kaye, Nicole A. Kochan, Bobo Hi Po LauDarren M. Lipnicki, Jessica W. Lo, Ugo Lucca, Steve R. Makkar, Gabriella Marcon, Peter Martin, Kenichi Meguro, Sofiya Milman, Leonard W. Poon, Angela Recchia, Oscar Ribeiro, Emma Riva, Christoph Rott, Sietske A.M. Sikkes, Ingmar Skoog, Blossom Stephan, Jan Szewieczek, Laetitia Teixeira, Mauro Tettamanti, Krzysztof Wilczyński, Perminder Sachdev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: There are limited data on prevalence of dementia in centenarians and near-centenarians (C/NC), its determinants, and whether the risk of dementia continues to rise beyond 100. Methods: Participant-level data were obtained from 18 community-based studies (N = 4427) in 11 countries that included individuals ≥95 years. A harmonization protocol was applied to cognitive and functional impairments, and a meta-analysis was performed. Results: The mean age was 98.3 years (SD = 2.67); 79% were women. After adjusting for age, sex, and education, dementia prevalence was 53.2% in women and 45.5% in men, with risk continuing to increase with age. Education (OR 0.95;0.92–0.98) was protective, as was hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 0.51;0.35–0.74) in five studies. Dementia was not associated with diabetes, vision and hearing impairments, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). Discussion: Among the exceptional old, dementia prevalence remains higher in the older participants. Education was protective against dementia, but other factors for dementia-free survival in C/NC remain to be understood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • centenarians
  • dementia
  • education
  • exceptional longevity
  • prevalence
  • risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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