Background: The optimal surgical management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is controversial. This study sought to compare clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1–associated and sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors from a large multi-national database. Methods: A multi-institutional, international database of patients with surgically resected pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors was analyzed. The cohort was divided into 2 groups: those with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 versus those with sporadic disease. Clinicopathologic comparisons were made. Overall and disease-free survival were analyzed. Propensity score matching was used to reduce bias. Results: Of 651 patients included, 45 (6.9%) had multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and 606 sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1–associated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were more common in younger patients and associated with multifocal disease at the time of surgery and higher T-stage. Lymph node involvement and the presence of metastasis were similar. Total pancreatectomy rate was 5-fold higher in the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 cohort. Median survival did not differ (disease-free survival 126 months multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 vs 198 months sporadic, P >. 5). After matching, survival remained similar (overall survival not reached in either cohort, disease-free survival 126 months multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 vs 198 months sporadic, P >. 5). Equivalence in overall survival and disease-free survival persisted even when patients who underwent subtotal and total pancreatectomy were excluded. Conclusion: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1–associated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are more common in younger patients and are associated with multifocality and higher T-stage. Survival for patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1–associated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is comparable to those with sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, even in the absence of radical pancreatectomy. Consideration should be given to parenchymal-sparing surgery to preserve pancreatic function.
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