Aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity is a major clinical problem. To understand how aminoglycosides, including gentamicin, induce cytotoxicity in the kidney proximal tubule and the inner ear, we identified gentamicin-binding proteins (GBPs) from mouse kidney cells by pulling down GBPs with gentamicin-agarose conjugates and mass spectrometric analysis. Among several GBPs specific to kidney proximal tubule cells, cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein of 63 kDa (CLIMP-63) was the only protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, and was co-localized with gentamicin-Texas Red (GTTR) conjugate after cells were treated with GTTR for 1 h. In western blots, kidney proximal tubule cells and cochlear cells, but not kidney distal tubule cells, exhibited a dithiothreitol (DTT)-resistant dimer band of CLIMP-63. Gentamicin treatment increased the presence of DTT-resistant CLIMP-63 dimers in both kidney proximal (KPT11) and distal (KDT3) tubule cells. Transfection of wildtype and mutant CLIMP-63 into 293T cells showed that the gentamicin-dependent dimerization requires CLIMP-63 palmitoylation. CLIMP-63 siRNA transfection enhanced cellular resistance to gentamicin-induced toxicity, which involves apoptosis, in KPT11 cells. Thus, the dimerization of CLIMP-63 is likely an early step in aminoglycoside-induced cytotoxicity in the kidney and cochlea. Gentamicin also enhanced the binding between CLIMP-63 and 14-3-3 proteins, and we also identified that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity, likely by binding to CLIMP-63.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research