To study the effects of flow acceleration and high-velocity jets on the display characteristics of cine magnetic resonance imaging compared with color Doppler flow mapping, a custom-designed in vitro flow model was developed. This model consisted of a funnel segment tapering to an orifice (0.78 cm2) that leads into a confined receiving chamber with a second, discrete orifice (0.78 cm2) at its distal end. Cine magnetic resonance images obtained at varying flow rates (1.5 to 27.2 L/min) demonstrated loss of signal intensity throughout the tapering zone of spatial acceleration and a small zone of more marked signal loss immediately proximal to the second orifice (always <50% of the signal intensity within the tapering funnel zone) associated with more rapid spatial acceleration. A formed jet was imaged distal to the first orifice, and the turbulence area surrounding the laminar central jet core correlated well with flow rate (r = 0.98), as did the distance from the orifice to the subsequent onset of flow relaminarization (r = 0.96). A turbulent spray area was always seen distal to the second, discrete orifice. Comparative observations with color Doppler flow mapping and continuous wave Doppler demonstrated that signal intensity on cine magnetic resonance imaging is reduced by both spatial acceleration, and the high-velocity and turbulent jets associated with obstructive and regurgitant lesions. In vitro evaluation of cine magnetic resonance imaging allows comparative observations to be made about the flow characteristics of cine magnetic resonance imaging and color Doppler flow mapping and provides a more rational basis for the interpretation of cine magnetic resonance imaging in the clinical setting.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine