Choline transporter immunohistochemistry

An effective substitute for acetylcholinesterase histochemistry to diagnose hirschsprung disease with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded rectal biopsies

Raj P. Kapur, Phil Raess, Samuel Hwang, Conrad Winter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Acetylcholinesterase enzymatic histochemistry (AChE EHC), which highlights abnormal cholinergic nerves in the mucosa of aganglionic bowel, has been used for decades to evaluate rectal biopsies for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). While useful diagnostically, AChE EHC is not compatible with conventional formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and is not widely available. The choline transporter (ChT) is a putative alternative marker of cholinergic nerves. ChT immunohistochemistry (IHC) was investigated using FFPE biopsies and resections from patients with confirmed HSCR, as well as appropriate non-HSCR controls. ChT immunostaining was effective at identifying cases with HSCR and qualitatively similar to AChE EHC on frozen section. Among 3 pathologists, the diagnostic positive and negative predictive values based on ChT IHC ranged from 0.84-0.94 and 0.85-0.89, respectively, with good inter-observer agreement (Cohen kappa=0.70-0.90). ChT IHC was useful in unusual scenarios in which calretinin (CR) IHC failed to correctly identify patients with HSCR. In 10 cases of short-segment HSCR, abnormal ChT mucosal innervation was present through the entire aganglionic segment and into portions of the TZ with submucosal nerve hypertrophy. In contrast, mucosal CR IHC was retained in the TZ and adjacent aganglionic bowel, which could lead to misinterpretation of a biopsy as ganglionic bowel. Indeed, 6 such patients were identified with paradoxical CR-positive mucosal innervation in their diagnostic biopsies. ChT IHC was interpreted as unequivocal HSCR in these cases, and HSCR was confirmed on resection. In summary, ChT IHC in FFPE tissue demonstrates high positive and negative predictive values for HSCR, is superior to CR IHC in a subset of cases, and can be incorporated into routine practice without the need for specialized techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)308-320
Number of pages13
JournalPediatric and Developmental Pathology
Volume20
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

Hirschsprung Disease
Acetylcholinesterase
Paraffin
Formaldehyde
Immunohistochemistry
Calbindin 2
Biopsy
Cholinergic Agents
choline transporter
Frozen Sections
Hypertrophy
Mucous Membrane

Keywords

  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Calretinin
  • Choline transporter
  • Hirschsprung disease
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Rectal biopsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

@article{f1539be19ff149598b58c3f8650bf30c,
title = "Choline transporter immunohistochemistry: An effective substitute for acetylcholinesterase histochemistry to diagnose hirschsprung disease with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded rectal biopsies",
abstract = "Acetylcholinesterase enzymatic histochemistry (AChE EHC), which highlights abnormal cholinergic nerves in the mucosa of aganglionic bowel, has been used for decades to evaluate rectal biopsies for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). While useful diagnostically, AChE EHC is not compatible with conventional formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and is not widely available. The choline transporter (ChT) is a putative alternative marker of cholinergic nerves. ChT immunohistochemistry (IHC) was investigated using FFPE biopsies and resections from patients with confirmed HSCR, as well as appropriate non-HSCR controls. ChT immunostaining was effective at identifying cases with HSCR and qualitatively similar to AChE EHC on frozen section. Among 3 pathologists, the diagnostic positive and negative predictive values based on ChT IHC ranged from 0.84-0.94 and 0.85-0.89, respectively, with good inter-observer agreement (Cohen kappa=0.70-0.90). ChT IHC was useful in unusual scenarios in which calretinin (CR) IHC failed to correctly identify patients with HSCR. In 10 cases of short-segment HSCR, abnormal ChT mucosal innervation was present through the entire aganglionic segment and into portions of the TZ with submucosal nerve hypertrophy. In contrast, mucosal CR IHC was retained in the TZ and adjacent aganglionic bowel, which could lead to misinterpretation of a biopsy as ganglionic bowel. Indeed, 6 such patients were identified with paradoxical CR-positive mucosal innervation in their diagnostic biopsies. ChT IHC was interpreted as unequivocal HSCR in these cases, and HSCR was confirmed on resection. In summary, ChT IHC in FFPE tissue demonstrates high positive and negative predictive values for HSCR, is superior to CR IHC in a subset of cases, and can be incorporated into routine practice without the need for specialized techniques.",
keywords = "Acetylcholinesterase, Calretinin, Choline transporter, Hirschsprung disease, Immunohistochemistry, Rectal biopsy",
author = "Kapur, {Raj P.} and Phil Raess and Samuel Hwang and Conrad Winter",
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T2 - An effective substitute for acetylcholinesterase histochemistry to diagnose hirschsprung disease with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded rectal biopsies

AU - Kapur, Raj P.

AU - Raess, Phil

AU - Hwang, Samuel

AU - Winter, Conrad

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Acetylcholinesterase enzymatic histochemistry (AChE EHC), which highlights abnormal cholinergic nerves in the mucosa of aganglionic bowel, has been used for decades to evaluate rectal biopsies for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). While useful diagnostically, AChE EHC is not compatible with conventional formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and is not widely available. The choline transporter (ChT) is a putative alternative marker of cholinergic nerves. ChT immunohistochemistry (IHC) was investigated using FFPE biopsies and resections from patients with confirmed HSCR, as well as appropriate non-HSCR controls. ChT immunostaining was effective at identifying cases with HSCR and qualitatively similar to AChE EHC on frozen section. Among 3 pathologists, the diagnostic positive and negative predictive values based on ChT IHC ranged from 0.84-0.94 and 0.85-0.89, respectively, with good inter-observer agreement (Cohen kappa=0.70-0.90). ChT IHC was useful in unusual scenarios in which calretinin (CR) IHC failed to correctly identify patients with HSCR. In 10 cases of short-segment HSCR, abnormal ChT mucosal innervation was present through the entire aganglionic segment and into portions of the TZ with submucosal nerve hypertrophy. In contrast, mucosal CR IHC was retained in the TZ and adjacent aganglionic bowel, which could lead to misinterpretation of a biopsy as ganglionic bowel. Indeed, 6 such patients were identified with paradoxical CR-positive mucosal innervation in their diagnostic biopsies. ChT IHC was interpreted as unequivocal HSCR in these cases, and HSCR was confirmed on resection. In summary, ChT IHC in FFPE tissue demonstrates high positive and negative predictive values for HSCR, is superior to CR IHC in a subset of cases, and can be incorporated into routine practice without the need for specialized techniques.

AB - Acetylcholinesterase enzymatic histochemistry (AChE EHC), which highlights abnormal cholinergic nerves in the mucosa of aganglionic bowel, has been used for decades to evaluate rectal biopsies for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). While useful diagnostically, AChE EHC is not compatible with conventional formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and is not widely available. The choline transporter (ChT) is a putative alternative marker of cholinergic nerves. ChT immunohistochemistry (IHC) was investigated using FFPE biopsies and resections from patients with confirmed HSCR, as well as appropriate non-HSCR controls. ChT immunostaining was effective at identifying cases with HSCR and qualitatively similar to AChE EHC on frozen section. Among 3 pathologists, the diagnostic positive and negative predictive values based on ChT IHC ranged from 0.84-0.94 and 0.85-0.89, respectively, with good inter-observer agreement (Cohen kappa=0.70-0.90). ChT IHC was useful in unusual scenarios in which calretinin (CR) IHC failed to correctly identify patients with HSCR. In 10 cases of short-segment HSCR, abnormal ChT mucosal innervation was present through the entire aganglionic segment and into portions of the TZ with submucosal nerve hypertrophy. In contrast, mucosal CR IHC was retained in the TZ and adjacent aganglionic bowel, which could lead to misinterpretation of a biopsy as ganglionic bowel. Indeed, 6 such patients were identified with paradoxical CR-positive mucosal innervation in their diagnostic biopsies. ChT IHC was interpreted as unequivocal HSCR in these cases, and HSCR was confirmed on resection. In summary, ChT IHC in FFPE tissue demonstrates high positive and negative predictive values for HSCR, is superior to CR IHC in a subset of cases, and can be incorporated into routine practice without the need for specialized techniques.

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KW - Immunohistochemistry

KW - Rectal biopsy

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