Background: The objective of the study was to examine in both genders the link between childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms (HI-s) and smoking in adolescence, controlling for psychopathology, temperament and environmental risk factors. Methods: Subjects (421 males, 495 females), aged 7 to 18, were recruited in the GAZEL cohort representative of the general population and surveyed in 1991 and 1999. Parent and adolescent self-report measures were used to assess child psychopathology and smoking patterns. Logistic regression was used to assess the effects of childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms and other predictors on adolescent smoking. Results: In females, hyperactivity-inattention symptoms contributed independently to subsequent daily smoking (OR = 1.98, p = 0.04). In males, hyperactivity-inattention symptoms alone did not increase the risk for smoking. Conduct disorder symptoms was an important predictor in males (OR = 2.95, p < 0.01) and females (OR = 1.75, p = 0.09). The risk of adolescent smoking was significantly increased in boys with high activity level (OR = 1.70, p = 0.03) and decreased in shy girls (OR = 0.60, p = 0.02). Parental smoking increased the liability to smoking in their offspring (males: OR = 1.96, p < 0.01; females: OR = 1.63, p = 0.02). Conclusions: If replicated, these findings suggest a role for smoking prevention in girls with hyperactivity-inattention symptoms and in boys with high activity level.
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
- Conduct disorder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Pharmacology (medical)