Chemoradiation therapy alters the PD-L1 score in locoregional recurrent squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

Brian J. Park, Austin K. Mattox, Daniel Clayburgh, Mihir Patel, R. Bryan Bell, Bevan Yueh, Rom Leidner, Hong Xiao, Marcus Couey, Shiting Li, Tingting Qin, Maureen A. Sartor, Belinda Cairns, Tracy MacDonough, Kyle Halliwill, Daniel Deschler, Derrick T. Lin, William C. Faquin, Peter M. Sadow, Sara I. Pai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

PD-L1 testing guides therapeutic decision-making for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We sought to understand whether chemoradiation therapy (CRT) influences the PD-L1 combined positive score (CPS) and other biomarkers of response to immunotherapy. PD-L1 expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry, and bulk RNA sequencing was performed on 146 HNSCC patients (65 primary sites, 50 paired local recurrences, and 31 paired regional recurrences). PD-L1 was scored using the CPS of ≥1, ≥20, and ≥50. Overall, 98 %, 54 %, and 17 % of HNSCCs had a CPS ≥1, ≥20, and ≥50, respectively. When using a cut-off of ≥1, CRT did not significantly change CPS at the locoregional recurrent site. However, there were significant changes when using CPS ≥20 or ≥50. The CPS changed for 32 % of patients when using a CPS ≥20 (p < 0.001). When using a CPS ≥50, there was a 20–23 % (p = 0.0058–0.00067) discordance rate at the site of locoregional recurrence. Oral cavity cancers had a significantly higher discordant rate than other primary sites for CPS ≥50, 44 % (8/18, p = 0.0058) and 58 % (7/12, p = 0.00067) discordance at the site of local and regional recurrence, respectively. When evaluating the 18 gene IFN-ɣ signature predictive of response to anti-PD-1 blockade, there was a statistically significant increase in the IFN-ɣ signature in recurrent larynx cancer (p = 0.02). Our study demonstrates that when using a higher cut-off of CPS ≥20 and ≥50, a repeat biopsy may be warranted after CRT for local and regional recurrent HNSCCs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106183
JournalOral Oncology
Volume135
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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