Chemistry and discharge characteristics of Odukpani junction springs, Calabar Flank, south-eastern Nigeria

G. Zuber, Eric Barklis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A 6-month study spanning the rainy and dry seasons was conducted on Odukpani Junction springs (Nigeria) to assess the variation in discharge and physico-chemical parameters. The study also evaluated the impact of geology and indiscriminate disposal of wastes on spring water quality. The results indicate a poor correlation between discharge (Q) and amount of rainfall (R). This is attributed to the distance of the meteorological station and the sampled localities, thus eliminating micro rainfall data. However, Q increased with an increase in R. The variation of ions with time was not large; however, concentrations were higher during the rainy season in most cases. Three major chemical facies (Ca-HCO3, Ca-SO4, K-HCO3) identified show major relationship with lithology. Multiple regression equations have been developed to predict the total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and discharge (Q). The level of nitrate is high (9-43 mg/l) compared with the World Health Organisation (WHO) limits of 10.0 mg/l. This is attributed to the indiscriminate dumping of domestic, human and animal wastes. Other parameters determined are within the limits acceptable for potable water by the Nigerian Federal Environmental Protection Agency (NFEPA) and WHO.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1214-1223
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Geology
Volume40
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

World Health Organization
Nigeria
Rain
wet season
chemistry
Health
total dissolved solids
animal wastes
Springs (water)
waste disposal
Lithology
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
geology
Geology
meteorological data
Waste disposal
Potable water
Drinking Water
Nitrates

Keywords

  • Discharge
  • Nigeria
  • Odukpani
  • Spring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Chemistry and discharge characteristics of Odukpani junction springs, Calabar Flank, south-eastern Nigeria. / Zuber, G.; Barklis, Eric.

In: Environmental Geology, Vol. 40, No. 10, 2001, p. 1214-1223.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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