Changes in plasma amino acid levels do not predict satiety and weight loss on diets with modified macronutrient composition

Mikhail S. Koren, Jonathan Purnell, Patricia A. Breen, Colleen C. Matthys, Holly S. Callahan, Kaatje E. Meeuws, Verna R. Burden, David S. Weigle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Serotonin mediates satiety in the central nervous system. Brain serotonin content depends on the plasma ratio of tryptophan (Trp) to large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and may be affected by diet composition. We examined whether high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets induce satiety and weight loss by altering plasma concentrations of these amino acids. Methods: In study 1 (n = 16, BMI = 27.0 ± 2.3), we compared plasma Trp and LNAA concentrations averaged over 24 h after 2 weeks of consuming isocaloric diets containing either 45 or 65% of total energy as carbohydrate. In study 2 (n = 19, BMI = 26.2 ± 2.1), we made the same measurements following diets containing either 15 or 30% of total energy as protein. To assess satiety in both studies, we recorded caloric intake and weight changes during a subsequent 12-week period of ad libitum consumption of the experimental diets. Results: Ad libitum caloric intake fell by 222 ± 81 kcal/day with a 3.7 ± 0.6 kg weight loss at 12 weeks in study 1. Ad libitum caloric intake fell by 441 ± 63 kcal/ day with a 4.9 ± 0.5 kg weight loss at 12 weeks in study 2. The 24-hour averaged plasma concentration of Trp and the Trp:LNAA ratio were unaffected by the isocaloric increase in carbohydrate or protein consumption that preceded the ad libitum administration of the 2 diets. Conclusion: An increase in either carbohydrate or protein intake increases satiety and leads to significant weight loss, however, these effects are not mediated by an increase in plasma concentration of Trp or the Trp:LNAA ratio.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)182-187
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume51
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2007

Fingerprint

Reducing Diet
Neutral Amino Acids
Diet
Amino Acids
Weight Loss
Energy Intake
Carbohydrates
Tryptophan
Serotonin
Proteins
Central Nervous System
Weights and Measures
Brain

Keywords

  • Appetite
  • Body weight
  • Diet composition
  • Satiety
  • Serotonin
  • Tryptophan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Changes in plasma amino acid levels do not predict satiety and weight loss on diets with modified macronutrient composition. / Koren, Mikhail S.; Purnell, Jonathan; Breen, Patricia A.; Matthys, Colleen C.; Callahan, Holly S.; Meeuws, Kaatje E.; Burden, Verna R.; Weigle, David S.

In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 51, No. 2, 06.2007, p. 182-187.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Koren, Mikhail S. ; Purnell, Jonathan ; Breen, Patricia A. ; Matthys, Colleen C. ; Callahan, Holly S. ; Meeuws, Kaatje E. ; Burden, Verna R. ; Weigle, David S. / Changes in plasma amino acid levels do not predict satiety and weight loss on diets with modified macronutrient composition. In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2007 ; Vol. 51, No. 2. pp. 182-187.
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abstract = "Objective: Serotonin mediates satiety in the central nervous system. Brain serotonin content depends on the plasma ratio of tryptophan (Trp) to large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and may be affected by diet composition. We examined whether high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets induce satiety and weight loss by altering plasma concentrations of these amino acids. Methods: In study 1 (n = 16, BMI = 27.0 ± 2.3), we compared plasma Trp and LNAA concentrations averaged over 24 h after 2 weeks of consuming isocaloric diets containing either 45 or 65{\%} of total energy as carbohydrate. In study 2 (n = 19, BMI = 26.2 ± 2.1), we made the same measurements following diets containing either 15 or 30{\%} of total energy as protein. To assess satiety in both studies, we recorded caloric intake and weight changes during a subsequent 12-week period of ad libitum consumption of the experimental diets. Results: Ad libitum caloric intake fell by 222 ± 81 kcal/day with a 3.7 ± 0.6 kg weight loss at 12 weeks in study 1. Ad libitum caloric intake fell by 441 ± 63 kcal/ day with a 4.9 ± 0.5 kg weight loss at 12 weeks in study 2. The 24-hour averaged plasma concentration of Trp and the Trp:LNAA ratio were unaffected by the isocaloric increase in carbohydrate or protein consumption that preceded the ad libitum administration of the 2 diets. Conclusion: An increase in either carbohydrate or protein intake increases satiety and leads to significant weight loss, however, these effects are not mediated by an increase in plasma concentration of Trp or the Trp:LNAA ratio.",
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T1 - Changes in plasma amino acid levels do not predict satiety and weight loss on diets with modified macronutrient composition

AU - Koren, Mikhail S.

AU - Purnell, Jonathan

AU - Breen, Patricia A.

AU - Matthys, Colleen C.

AU - Callahan, Holly S.

AU - Meeuws, Kaatje E.

AU - Burden, Verna R.

AU - Weigle, David S.

PY - 2007/6

Y1 - 2007/6

N2 - Objective: Serotonin mediates satiety in the central nervous system. Brain serotonin content depends on the plasma ratio of tryptophan (Trp) to large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and may be affected by diet composition. We examined whether high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets induce satiety and weight loss by altering plasma concentrations of these amino acids. Methods: In study 1 (n = 16, BMI = 27.0 ± 2.3), we compared plasma Trp and LNAA concentrations averaged over 24 h after 2 weeks of consuming isocaloric diets containing either 45 or 65% of total energy as carbohydrate. In study 2 (n = 19, BMI = 26.2 ± 2.1), we made the same measurements following diets containing either 15 or 30% of total energy as protein. To assess satiety in both studies, we recorded caloric intake and weight changes during a subsequent 12-week period of ad libitum consumption of the experimental diets. Results: Ad libitum caloric intake fell by 222 ± 81 kcal/day with a 3.7 ± 0.6 kg weight loss at 12 weeks in study 1. Ad libitum caloric intake fell by 441 ± 63 kcal/ day with a 4.9 ± 0.5 kg weight loss at 12 weeks in study 2. The 24-hour averaged plasma concentration of Trp and the Trp:LNAA ratio were unaffected by the isocaloric increase in carbohydrate or protein consumption that preceded the ad libitum administration of the 2 diets. Conclusion: An increase in either carbohydrate or protein intake increases satiety and leads to significant weight loss, however, these effects are not mediated by an increase in plasma concentration of Trp or the Trp:LNAA ratio.

AB - Objective: Serotonin mediates satiety in the central nervous system. Brain serotonin content depends on the plasma ratio of tryptophan (Trp) to large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and may be affected by diet composition. We examined whether high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets induce satiety and weight loss by altering plasma concentrations of these amino acids. Methods: In study 1 (n = 16, BMI = 27.0 ± 2.3), we compared plasma Trp and LNAA concentrations averaged over 24 h after 2 weeks of consuming isocaloric diets containing either 45 or 65% of total energy as carbohydrate. In study 2 (n = 19, BMI = 26.2 ± 2.1), we made the same measurements following diets containing either 15 or 30% of total energy as protein. To assess satiety in both studies, we recorded caloric intake and weight changes during a subsequent 12-week period of ad libitum consumption of the experimental diets. Results: Ad libitum caloric intake fell by 222 ± 81 kcal/day with a 3.7 ± 0.6 kg weight loss at 12 weeks in study 1. Ad libitum caloric intake fell by 441 ± 63 kcal/ day with a 4.9 ± 0.5 kg weight loss at 12 weeks in study 2. The 24-hour averaged plasma concentration of Trp and the Trp:LNAA ratio were unaffected by the isocaloric increase in carbohydrate or protein consumption that preceded the ad libitum administration of the 2 diets. Conclusion: An increase in either carbohydrate or protein intake increases satiety and leads to significant weight loss, however, these effects are not mediated by an increase in plasma concentration of Trp or the Trp:LNAA ratio.

KW - Appetite

KW - Body weight

KW - Diet composition

KW - Satiety

KW - Serotonin

KW - Tryptophan

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