Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are widely prescribed for severe arthritis and are currently under study in human chemoprevention trials. Recently, long-term use of these agents has come under scrutiny due to reports of treatment-associated cardiovascular toxicity. On short-term administration, the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib inhibits adenoma growth in animal tumor models, including the C57BL/6J-Min/+ (Min/+) mouse. With uninterrupted long-term celecoxib administration, intestinal tumors in Min/+ mice initially regressed and then recurred to levels comparable with untreated controls. Celecoxib treatment initially suppressed COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2) expression, but long-term use produced significantly higher levels of these molecules and reactivated PGE2-associated growth factor signaling pathways in tumor and normal tissues. These results indicate that COX-2 is an important chemoprevention target and that inhibition of this enzyme alters a paracrine enterocyte regulatory pathway. Chronic uninterrupted celecoxib treatment, however, induces untoward effects that enhance early progression events in intestinal tumorigenesis and may contribute to treatment toxicity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research