BACKGROUND: Trauma-induced coagulopathy following severe injury is associated with increased bleeding and mortality. Injury may result in alteration of cellular phenotypes and release of cell-derived microparticles (MP). Circulating MPs are procoagulant and support thrombin generation (TG) and clotting. We evaluated MP and TG phenotypes in severely injured patients at admission, in relation to coagulopathy and bleeding.
METHODS: As part of the Prospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) study, research blood samples were obtained from 180 trauma patients requiring transfusions at 5 participating centers. Twenty five healthy controls and 40 minimally injured patients were analyzed for comparisons. Laboratory criteria for coagulopathy was activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) ≥ 35 sec. Samples were analyzed by Calibrated Automated Thrombogram to assess TG, and by flow cytometry for MP phenotypes [platelet (PMP), erythrocyte (RMP), leukocyte (LMP), endothelial (EMP), tissue factor (TFMP), and Annexin V positive (AVMP)].
RESULTS: 21.7% of patients were coagulopathic with the median (IQR) APTT of 44 sec (37, 53), and an Injury Severity Score of 26 (17, 35). Compared to controls, patients had elevated EMP, RMP, LMP, and TFMP (all p<0.001), and enhanced TG (p<0.0001). However, coagulopathic PROMMTT patients had significantly lower PMP, TFMP, and TG, higher substantial bleeding, and higher mortality compared to non-coagulopathic patients (all p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Cellular activation and enhanced TG are predominant after trauma and independent of injury severity. Coagulopathy was associated with lower thrombin peak and rate compared to non-coagulopathic patients, while lower levels of TF-bearing PMPs were associated with substantial bleeding.
- Blood coagulation
- Cell–derived microparticles
ASJC Scopus subject areas