Cecal ligation and puncture followed by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines

Enjae Jung, Erin E. Perrone, Zhe Liang, Elise R. Breed, Jessica A. Dominguez, Andrew T. Clark, Amy C. Fox, W. Michael Dunne, Eileen M. Burd, Alton B. Farris, Richard S. Hotchkiss, Craig M. Coopersmith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mortality in the intensive care unit frequently results from the synergistic effect of two temporally distinct infections. This study examined the pathophysiology of a new model of intra-abdominal sepsis followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy followed 3 days later by an intratracheal injection of MRSA or saline. Both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice had 100% survival, whereas animals with CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia had 67% 7-day survival. Animals subjected to CLP/MRSA had increased bronchoalveolar lavage concentrations of MRSA compared with sham/MRSA animals. Animals subjected to sham/MRSA pneumonia had increased bronchoalveolar lavage levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with those given intratracheal saline, whereas CLP/MRSA mice had a blunted local inflammatory response with markedly decreased cytokine levels. Similarly, animals subjected to CLP/saline had increased peritoneal lavage levels of IL-6 and IL-1β compared with those subjected to sham laparotomy, whereas this response was blunted in CLP/MRSA mice. Systemic cytokines were upregulated in both CLP/saline and sham/MRSA mice, and this was blunted by the combination of CLP/MRSA. In contrast, no synergistic effect on pneumonia severity, white blood cell count, or lymphocyte apoptosis was identified in CLP/MRSA mice compared with animals with either insult in isolation. These results indicate that a clinically relevant model of CLP followed by MRSA pneumonia causes higher mortality than could have been predicted from studying either infection in isolation, and this was associated with a blunted local (pulmonary and peritoneal) and systemic inflammatory response and decreased ability to clear infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-94
Number of pages10
JournalShock
Volume37
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2012

Keywords

  • MRSA
  • Sepsis
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • cecal ligation and puncture
  • cytokines
  • host response
  • pneumonia
  • two-hit animal models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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    Jung, E., Perrone, E. E., Liang, Z., Breed, E. R., Dominguez, J. A., Clark, A. T., Fox, A. C., Dunne, W. M., Burd, E. M., Farris, A. B., Hotchkiss, R. S., & Coopersmith, C. M. (2012). Cecal ligation and puncture followed by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia increases mortality in mice and blunts production of local and systemic cytokines. Shock, 37(1), 85-94. https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0b013e3182360faf