Objectives: This study sought to develop a method to adjust for case mix complexity in catheterization for congenital heart disease to allow equitable comparisons of adverse event (AE) rates. Background: The C3PO (Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes) has been prospectively collecting data using a Web-based data entry tool on all catheterization cases at 8 pediatric institutions since 2007. Methods: A multivariable logistic regression model with high-severity AE outcome was built using a random sample of 75% of cases in the multicenter cohort; the models were assessed in the remaining 25%. Model discrimination was assessed by the C-statistic and calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The final models were used to calculate standardized AE ratios. Results: Between August 2007 and December 2009, 9,362 cases were recorded at 8 pediatric institutions of which high-severity events occurred in 454 cases (5%). Assessment of empirical data yielded 4 independent indicators of hemodynamic vulnerability. Final multivariable models included procedure type risk category (odds ratios [OR] for category: 2 = 2.4, 3 = 4.9, 4 = 7.6, all p < 0.001), number of hemodynamic indicators (OR for 1 indicator = 1.5, <2 = 1.8, p = 0.005 and p < 0.001), and age <1 year (OR: 1.3, p = 0.04), C-statistic 0.737, and Hosmer-Lemeshow test p = 0.74. Models performed well in the validation dataset, C-statistic 0.734. Institutional event rates ranged from 1.91% to 7.37% and standardized AE ratios ranged from 0.61 to 1.41. Conclusions: Using CHARM (Catheterization for Congenital Heart Disease Adjustment for Risk Method) to adjust for case mix complexity should allow comparisons of AE among institutions performing catheterization for congenital heart disease.
- cardiac catheterization
- cardiovascular interventions
- heart defects congenital
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine