Caring for the elderly at work and home

Can a randomized organizational intervention improve psychological health?

Ellen Ernst Kossek, Rebecca J. Thompson, Katie M. Lawson, Todd Bodner, Matthew B. Perrigino, Leslie Hammer, Orfeu M. Buxton, David M. Almeida, Phyllis Moen, David Hurtado, Bradley Wipfli, Lisa F. Berkman, Jeremy W. Bray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although job stress models suggest that changing the work social environment to increase job resources improves psychological health, many intervention studies have weak designs and overlook influences of family caregiving demands. We tested the effects of an organizational intervention designed to increase supervisor social support for work and nonwork roles, and job control in a results-oriented work environment on the stress and psychological distress of health care employees who care for the elderly, while simultaneously considering their own family caregiving responsibilities. Using a group-randomized organizational field trial with an intent-to-treat design, 420 caregivers in 15 intervention extended-care nursing facilities were compared with 511 caregivers in 15 control facilities at 4 measurement times: preintervention and 6, 12, and 18 months. There were no main intervention effects showing improvements in stress and psychological distress when comparing intervention with control sites. Moderation analyses indicate that the intervention was more effective in reducing stress and psychological distress for caregivers who were also caring for other family members off the job (those with elders and those "sandwiched" with both child and elder caregiving responsibilities) compared with employees without caregiving demands. These findings extend previous studies by showing that the effect of organizational interventions designed to increase job resources to improve psychological health varies according to differences in nonwork caregiving demands. This research suggests that caregivers, especially those with "double-duty" elder caregiving at home and work and "triple-duty" responsibilities, including child care, may benefit from interventions designed to increase work-nonwork social support and job control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-54
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Occupational Health Psychology
Volume24
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

Fingerprint

Caregivers
Psychology
Psychological Stress
Health
Social Support
Facility Regulation and Control
Skilled Nursing Facilities
Social Environment
Child Care
Delivery of Health Care
Research

Keywords

  • elder care
  • health care
  • job stress
  • organizational intervention
  • work-family

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Caring for the elderly at work and home : Can a randomized organizational intervention improve psychological health? / Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Thompson, Rebecca J.; Lawson, Katie M.; Bodner, Todd; Perrigino, Matthew B.; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Almeida, David M.; Moen, Phyllis; Hurtado, David; Wipfli, Bradley; Berkman, Lisa F.; Bray, Jeremy W.

In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 01.02.2019, p. 36-54.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kossek, EE, Thompson, RJ, Lawson, KM, Bodner, T, Perrigino, MB, Hammer, L, Buxton, OM, Almeida, DM, Moen, P, Hurtado, D, Wipfli, B, Berkman, LF & Bray, JW 2019, 'Caring for the elderly at work and home: Can a randomized organizational intervention improve psychological health?', Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 36-54. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000104
Kossek, Ellen Ernst ; Thompson, Rebecca J. ; Lawson, Katie M. ; Bodner, Todd ; Perrigino, Matthew B. ; Hammer, Leslie ; Buxton, Orfeu M. ; Almeida, David M. ; Moen, Phyllis ; Hurtado, David ; Wipfli, Bradley ; Berkman, Lisa F. ; Bray, Jeremy W. / Caring for the elderly at work and home : Can a randomized organizational intervention improve psychological health?. In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2019 ; Vol. 24, No. 1. pp. 36-54.
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