Fap1, a serine-rich repeat glycoprotein (SRRP), is required for bacterial biofilm formation of Streptococcus parasanguinis. Fap1-like SRRPs are found in many Gram-positive bacteria and have been implicated in bacterial fitness and virulence. A conserved five-gene cluster, secY2-gap1-gap2-gap3-secA2, located immediately downstream of fap1, is required for Fap1 biogenesis. secA2, gap1, and gap3 encode three putative accessory Sec proteins. SecA2 mediates export of mature Fap1, and Gap1 and Gap3 are required for Fap1 biogenesis. Interestingly, gap1 and gap3 mutants exhibited the same phenotype as a secA2 mutant, implying that Gap1 and Gap3 may interact with SecA2 to mediate Fap1 biogenesis. Glutathione S-transferase pulldown experiments revealed a direct interaction between SecA2, Gap1, and Gap3 in vitro. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated the formation of a SecA2-Gap1-Gap3 complex. Homologues of SecA2, Gap1, and Gap3 are conserved in many streptococci and staphylococci. The corresponding homologues from Streptococcus agalactiae also interacted with each other and formed a protein complex. Furthermore, the Gap1 homologues from S. agalactiae and Streptococcus sanguinis rescued the Fap1 defect in the Gap1 mutant, indicating the functional conservation of the accessory Sec complex. Importantly, canonical SecA interacted with the accessory Sec protein complex, suggesting that the biogenesis of SRRPs mediated by the accessory Sec system is linked to the canonical Sec system.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology