To simplify transmitral volume flow determination by Doppler echocardiography, a formula for calculating mean mitral valve orifice area using M-mode echocardiography without any 2-dimensional measurements was developed and evaluated in this study. The maximal mitral orifice area was assumed to be circular and its diameter was calculated from the maximal M-mode mitral leaflet separation. The maximal area was multiplied by the mean to maximal anterior mitral leaflet excursion ratio to correct for phasic changes in flow orifice area during ventricular filling. This measurement had a high correlation (r = 0.97, standard error of the estimate + 0.26 cm2) with mean mitral valve orifice area calculated from frame-by-frame analysis of short-axis 2-dimensional echoes in a select group of 10 normal volunteers and 10 patients with cardiomyopathy who had very high quality images of the mitral valve leaflet tips. Cardiac output calculated using the new method for orifice area estimation combined with apex view mitral valve Doppler velocities was then validated in 48 consecutive patients undergoing thermodilution cardiac output determinations with a close correlation between Doppler and thermodilution cardiac output (2.3 to 6.1 liter/min, r = 0.93, standard error of the estimate = 362 ml). The correlation improved when 12 patients with mild mitral insufficiency were excluded (r = 0.95). The M-mode echocardiogram-derived mitral valve orifice method combined with Doppler mitral valve velocities is accurate, easy to perform, has a high success rate and should increase the applicability of Doppler echocardiography for estimation of cardiac output.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine