Breastfeeding Practices Among Women Living with HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: An Observational Study

Jocelyn E. Remmert, Nzwakie Mosery, Georgia Goodman, David R. Bangsberg, Steven A. Safren, Jennifer A. Smit, Christina Psaros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the safest infant feeding option in resource-limited settings, though women living with HIV have the lowest rates of EBF. Barriers to EBF in the absences of a formal intervention in women living with HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, where the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women is among the highest in the world, are understudied. Thus, this study sought to describe barriers to EBF and examine differences in social support, disclosure status, mood, and HIV-related stigma among women with different feeding methods. Methods: Women living with HIV enrolled in preventing mother-to-child transmission treatment (n = 156) were interviewed postpartum (M = 13.1 weeks) at a district hospital and self-reported infant feeding method, reasons not breastfeeding (if applicable), and HIV disclosure status. Mood, HIV-related stigma, functional social support, and HIV-related social support were also assessed. Results: No participants reported mixed feeding, 30% reported EBF, and 70% reported exclusive formula feeding. Commonly reported reasons for not breastfeeding included fear of HIV transmission to the infant and being away from the infant for extended periods of time. Social support (p = 0.02) and HIV-related social support (p < 0.01) were significantly higher in women who had attempted breastfeeding compared to women who never attempted breastfeeding. Discussion: Rates of EBF in this sample are lower than in other recent studies, suggesting this sample experiences multiple barriers to EBF. Healthcare providers should seek to correct misconceptions regarding HIV transmission and breastfeeding practices. Social and logistical support for EBF may be important considerations for future interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMaternal and child health journal
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

South Africa
Breast Feeding
Observational Studies
HIV
Social Support
Feeding Methods
Disclosure
District Hospitals
Health Personnel
Postpartum Period
Fear
Pregnant Women
Mothers

Keywords

  • Breastfeeding
  • HIV-positive
  • Infant feeding method
  • South Africa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Breastfeeding Practices Among Women Living with HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa : An Observational Study. / Remmert, Jocelyn E.; Mosery, Nzwakie; Goodman, Georgia; Bangsberg, David R.; Safren, Steven A.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Psaros, Christina.

In: Maternal and child health journal, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Remmert, Jocelyn E. ; Mosery, Nzwakie ; Goodman, Georgia ; Bangsberg, David R. ; Safren, Steven A. ; Smit, Jennifer A. ; Psaros, Christina. / Breastfeeding Practices Among Women Living with HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa : An Observational Study. In: Maternal and child health journal. 2019.
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AU - Goodman, Georgia

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N2 - Introduction: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the safest infant feeding option in resource-limited settings, though women living with HIV have the lowest rates of EBF. Barriers to EBF in the absences of a formal intervention in women living with HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, where the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women is among the highest in the world, are understudied. Thus, this study sought to describe barriers to EBF and examine differences in social support, disclosure status, mood, and HIV-related stigma among women with different feeding methods. Methods: Women living with HIV enrolled in preventing mother-to-child transmission treatment (n = 156) were interviewed postpartum (M = 13.1 weeks) at a district hospital and self-reported infant feeding method, reasons not breastfeeding (if applicable), and HIV disclosure status. Mood, HIV-related stigma, functional social support, and HIV-related social support were also assessed. Results: No participants reported mixed feeding, 30% reported EBF, and 70% reported exclusive formula feeding. Commonly reported reasons for not breastfeeding included fear of HIV transmission to the infant and being away from the infant for extended periods of time. Social support (p = 0.02) and HIV-related social support (p < 0.01) were significantly higher in women who had attempted breastfeeding compared to women who never attempted breastfeeding. Discussion: Rates of EBF in this sample are lower than in other recent studies, suggesting this sample experiences multiple barriers to EBF. Healthcare providers should seek to correct misconceptions regarding HIV transmission and breastfeeding practices. Social and logistical support for EBF may be important considerations for future interventions.

AB - Introduction: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the safest infant feeding option in resource-limited settings, though women living with HIV have the lowest rates of EBF. Barriers to EBF in the absences of a formal intervention in women living with HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, where the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women is among the highest in the world, are understudied. Thus, this study sought to describe barriers to EBF and examine differences in social support, disclosure status, mood, and HIV-related stigma among women with different feeding methods. Methods: Women living with HIV enrolled in preventing mother-to-child transmission treatment (n = 156) were interviewed postpartum (M = 13.1 weeks) at a district hospital and self-reported infant feeding method, reasons not breastfeeding (if applicable), and HIV disclosure status. Mood, HIV-related stigma, functional social support, and HIV-related social support were also assessed. Results: No participants reported mixed feeding, 30% reported EBF, and 70% reported exclusive formula feeding. Commonly reported reasons for not breastfeeding included fear of HIV transmission to the infant and being away from the infant for extended periods of time. Social support (p = 0.02) and HIV-related social support (p < 0.01) were significantly higher in women who had attempted breastfeeding compared to women who never attempted breastfeeding. Discussion: Rates of EBF in this sample are lower than in other recent studies, suggesting this sample experiences multiple barriers to EBF. Healthcare providers should seek to correct misconceptions regarding HIV transmission and breastfeeding practices. Social and logistical support for EBF may be important considerations for future interventions.

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