Purpose: Despite substantial progress in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), fewer than 25% of patients survive free of leukemia for more than 5 years without allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In this study we analyzed the results of one or more cycles of high-dose cytarabine-based consolidation chemotherapy as compared with allogeneic BMT in first remission. Patients and Methods: The results in 28 adult patients, aged 16 to 45 years, who underwent a closely HLA-matched BMT for AML in first remission were compared with those in 54 consecutive, age-matched, adult patients treated with one or more cycles of high-dose, cytarabine-based consolidation chemotherapy. Results: After a median follow-up of 4 years, the actuarial risk of leukemic relapse was considerably lower in the transplant group than in the group treated with consolidation chemotherapy (32% ± 26% v 60% ± 14%; P = .05). Treatment-related mortality, however, was much higher in the group treated with BMT (32% v 6%, P = .002). The actuarial disease-free survival at 5 years was not significantly different for the two groups (45% ± 24% v 38% ± 14%). Conclusions: Our results show that BMT in first remission AML did not offer a disease-free survival advantage over intensive postremission consolidation chemotherapy. Larger studies are needed to identify patients who might benefit most from BMT.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research