BMP-2 induction and TGF-β1 modulation of rat periosteal cell chondrogenesis

Keigo Hanada, Luis A. Solchaga, Arnold I. Caplan, Thomas M. Hering, Victor M. Goldberg, Jung U. Yoo, Brian Johnstone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

146 Scopus citations


Periosteum contains osteochondral progenitor cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes during normal bone growth and fracture healing. TGF-β1 and BMP-2 have been implicated in the regulation of the chondrogenic differentiation of these cells, but their roles are not fully defined. This study was undertaken to investigate the chondrogenic effects of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 on rat periosteum-derived cells during in vitro chondrogenesis in a three-dimensional aggregate culture. RT-PCR analyses for gene expression of cartilage-specific matrix proteins revealed that treatment with BMP-2 alone and combined treatment with TGF-β1 and BMP-2 induced time-dependent mRNA expression of aggrecan core protein and type II collagen. At later times in culture, the aggregates treated with BMP-2 exhibited expression of type X collagen and osteocalcin mRNA, which are markers of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Aggregates incubated with both TGF-β1 and BMP-2 showed no such expression. Treatment with TGF-β1 alone did not lead to the expression of type II or X collagen mRNA, indicating that this factor itself did not independently induce chondrogenesis in rat periosteal cells. These data were consistent with histological and immunohistochemical results. After 14 days in culture, BMP-2-treated aggregates consisted of many hypertrophic chondrocytes within a metachromatic matrix, which was immunoreactive with anti-type II and type X collagen antibodies. In contrast, at 14 days, TGF-β1+BMP-2-treated aggregates did not contain any morphologically identifiable hypertrophic chondrocytes and their abundant extracellular matrix was not immunoreactive to the anti-type X collagen antibody. Expression of BMPR-IA, TGF-β RI, and TGF-β RII receptors was detected at all times in each culture condition, indicating that the distinct responses of aggregates to BMP-2, TGFβ1 and TGFβ1+BMP-2 were not due to overt differences in receptor expression. Collectively, our results suggest that BMP-2 induces neochondrogenesis of rat periosteum-derived cells, and that TGF-β1 modulates the terminal differentiation in BMP-2 induced chondrogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)284-294
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of cellular biochemistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001


  • BMP-2
  • Chondrogenesis
  • Hypertrophy
  • Periosteum
  • TGF-β1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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