Blocking virus replication during acute murine cytomegalovirus infection paradoxically prolongs antigen presentation and increases the CD8+ T cell response by preventing type I IFN-dependent depletion of dendritic cells

Christopher P. Loo, Christopher M. Snyder, Ann Hill

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Increasing amounts of pathogen replication usually lead to a proportionate increase in size and effector differentiation of the CD8+ T cell response, which is attributed to increased Ag and inflammation. Using a murine CMV that is highly sensitive to the antiviral drug famciclovir to modulate virus replication, we found that increased virus replication drove increased effector CD8+ T cell differentiation, as expected. Paradoxically, however, increased virus replication dramatically decreased the size of the CD8+ T cell response to two immunodominant epitopes. The decreased response was due to type I IFN-dependent depletion of conventional dendritic cells and could be reproduced by specific depletion of dendritic cells from day 2 postinfection or by sterile induction of type I IFN. Increased virus replication and type I IFN specifically inhibited the response to two immunodominant epitopes that are known to be dependent on Ag cross-presented by DCs, but they did not inhibit the response to "inflationary" epitopes whose responses can be sustained by infected nonhematopoietic cells. Our results show that type I IFN can suppress CD8+ T cell responses to cross-presented Ag by depleting cross-presenting conventional dendritic cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)383-393
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Immunology
Volume198
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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Muromegalovirus
Antigen Presentation
Cytomegalovirus Infections
Virus Replication
Dendritic Cells
T-Lymphocytes
Immunodominant Epitopes
Antiviral Agents
Epitopes
Cell Differentiation
Inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

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title = "Blocking virus replication during acute murine cytomegalovirus infection paradoxically prolongs antigen presentation and increases the CD8+ T cell response by preventing type I IFN-dependent depletion of dendritic cells",
abstract = "Increasing amounts of pathogen replication usually lead to a proportionate increase in size and effector differentiation of the CD8+ T cell response, which is attributed to increased Ag and inflammation. Using a murine CMV that is highly sensitive to the antiviral drug famciclovir to modulate virus replication, we found that increased virus replication drove increased effector CD8+ T cell differentiation, as expected. Paradoxically, however, increased virus replication dramatically decreased the size of the CD8+ T cell response to two immunodominant epitopes. The decreased response was due to type I IFN-dependent depletion of conventional dendritic cells and could be reproduced by specific depletion of dendritic cells from day 2 postinfection or by sterile induction of type I IFN. Increased virus replication and type I IFN specifically inhibited the response to two immunodominant epitopes that are known to be dependent on Ag cross-presented by DCs, but they did not inhibit the response to {"}inflationary{"} epitopes whose responses can be sustained by infected nonhematopoietic cells. Our results show that type I IFN can suppress CD8+ T cell responses to cross-presented Ag by depleting cross-presenting conventional dendritic cells.",
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AU - Snyder, Christopher M.

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N2 - Increasing amounts of pathogen replication usually lead to a proportionate increase in size and effector differentiation of the CD8+ T cell response, which is attributed to increased Ag and inflammation. Using a murine CMV that is highly sensitive to the antiviral drug famciclovir to modulate virus replication, we found that increased virus replication drove increased effector CD8+ T cell differentiation, as expected. Paradoxically, however, increased virus replication dramatically decreased the size of the CD8+ T cell response to two immunodominant epitopes. The decreased response was due to type I IFN-dependent depletion of conventional dendritic cells and could be reproduced by specific depletion of dendritic cells from day 2 postinfection or by sterile induction of type I IFN. Increased virus replication and type I IFN specifically inhibited the response to two immunodominant epitopes that are known to be dependent on Ag cross-presented by DCs, but they did not inhibit the response to "inflationary" epitopes whose responses can be sustained by infected nonhematopoietic cells. Our results show that type I IFN can suppress CD8+ T cell responses to cross-presented Ag by depleting cross-presenting conventional dendritic cells.

AB - Increasing amounts of pathogen replication usually lead to a proportionate increase in size and effector differentiation of the CD8+ T cell response, which is attributed to increased Ag and inflammation. Using a murine CMV that is highly sensitive to the antiviral drug famciclovir to modulate virus replication, we found that increased virus replication drove increased effector CD8+ T cell differentiation, as expected. Paradoxically, however, increased virus replication dramatically decreased the size of the CD8+ T cell response to two immunodominant epitopes. The decreased response was due to type I IFN-dependent depletion of conventional dendritic cells and could be reproduced by specific depletion of dendritic cells from day 2 postinfection or by sterile induction of type I IFN. Increased virus replication and type I IFN specifically inhibited the response to two immunodominant epitopes that are known to be dependent on Ag cross-presented by DCs, but they did not inhibit the response to "inflationary" epitopes whose responses can be sustained by infected nonhematopoietic cells. Our results show that type I IFN can suppress CD8+ T cell responses to cross-presented Ag by depleting cross-presenting conventional dendritic cells.

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