Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has evolved from being a deadly to a highly curable disease, due totargeted molecular therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). As a result, the incidence of early hemorrhagic deaths for which APL is notorious has reduced to 5-10% as reported in clinical trials. These results are not replicated outside of clinical trials as is evident from recent population-based registries. High incidence of early hemorrhagic deaths remains the greatest contributor to treatment failure in this otherwise curable leukemia. Additionally, thrombosis is now being increasingly recognized in APL patients and may be associated with ATRA usage.
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