Bis-GMA co-polymerizations: Influence on conversion, flexural properties, fracture toughness and susceptibility to ethanol degradation of experimental composites

Carmem Pfeifer, Laura R. Silva, Yoshio Kawano, Roberto R. Braga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of monomer content on fracture toughness (KIc) before and after ethanol solution storage, flexural properties and degree of conversion (DC) of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) co-polymers. Methods: Five formulations were tested, containing Bis-GMA (B) combined with TEGDMA (T), UDMA (U) or Bis-EMA (E), as follows (in mol%): 30B:70T; 30B:35T:35U; 30B:70U; 30B:35T:35E; 30B:70E. Bimodal filler was introduced at 80 wt%. Single-edge notched beams for fracture toughness (FT, 25 mm × 5 mm × 2.5 mm, a/w = 0.5, n = 20) and 10 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm beams for flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM) determination (10 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm, n = 10) were built and then stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37 °C. All FS/FM beams and half of the FT specimens were immediately submitted to three-point bending test. The remaining FT specimens were stored in a 75%ethanol/25%water (v/v) solution for 3 months prior to testing. DC was determined with FT-Raman spectroscopy in fragments of both FT and FS/FM specimens at 24 h. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA/Tukey test (α = 5%). Results: The 30B:70T composite presented the highest KIc value (in MPa m1/2) at 24 h (1.3 ± 0.4), statistically similar to 30B:35T:35U and 30B:70U, while 30B:70E presented the lowest value (0.5 ± 0.1). After ethanol storage, reductions in KIc ranged from 33 to 72%. The 30B:70E material presented the lowest reduction in FT and 30B:70U, the highest. DC was similar among groups (69-73%), except for 30B:70U (52 ± 4%, p <0.001). 30B:70U and 30B:35T:35U presented the highest FS (125 ± 21 and 122 ± 14 MPa, respectively), statistically different from 30B:70T or 30B:70E (92 ± 20 and 94 ± 16 MPa, respectively). Composites containing UDMA or Bis-EMA associated with Bis-GMA presented similar FM, statistically lower than 30B:35T:35U. Significance: Composites formulated with Bis-GMA:TEGDMA:UDMA presented the best compromise between conversion and mechanical properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1136-1141
Number of pages6
JournalDental Materials
Volume25
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2009
Externally publishedYes

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Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate
Polymerization
Bending strength
Copolymerization
Fracture toughness
Ethanol
Degradation
Composite materials
Raman Spectrum Analysis
Water
Bending tests
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Raman spectroscopy
Fillers
Analysis of Variance
Polymers
Monomers
Mechanical properties
Testing

Keywords

  • Composites
  • Conversion
  • Dimethacrylates
  • Mechanical properties
  • Organic solvents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Bis-GMA co-polymerizations : Influence on conversion, flexural properties, fracture toughness and susceptibility to ethanol degradation of experimental composites. / Pfeifer, Carmem; Silva, Laura R.; Kawano, Yoshio; Braga, Roberto R.

In: Dental Materials, Vol. 25, No. 9, 09.2009, p. 1136-1141.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Bis-GMA co-polymerizations: Influence on conversion, flexural properties, fracture toughness and susceptibility to ethanol degradation of experimental composites",
abstract = "Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of monomer content on fracture toughness (KIc) before and after ethanol solution storage, flexural properties and degree of conversion (DC) of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) co-polymers. Methods: Five formulations were tested, containing Bis-GMA (B) combined with TEGDMA (T), UDMA (U) or Bis-EMA (E), as follows (in mol{\%}): 30B:70T; 30B:35T:35U; 30B:70U; 30B:35T:35E; 30B:70E. Bimodal filler was introduced at 80 wt{\%}. Single-edge notched beams for fracture toughness (FT, 25 mm × 5 mm × 2.5 mm, a/w = 0.5, n = 20) and 10 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm beams for flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM) determination (10 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm, n = 10) were built and then stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37 °C. All FS/FM beams and half of the FT specimens were immediately submitted to three-point bending test. The remaining FT specimens were stored in a 75{\%}ethanol/25{\%}water (v/v) solution for 3 months prior to testing. DC was determined with FT-Raman spectroscopy in fragments of both FT and FS/FM specimens at 24 h. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA/Tukey test (α = 5{\%}). Results: The 30B:70T composite presented the highest KIc value (in MPa m1/2) at 24 h (1.3 ± 0.4), statistically similar to 30B:35T:35U and 30B:70U, while 30B:70E presented the lowest value (0.5 ± 0.1). After ethanol storage, reductions in KIc ranged from 33 to 72{\%}. The 30B:70E material presented the lowest reduction in FT and 30B:70U, the highest. DC was similar among groups (69-73{\%}), except for 30B:70U (52 ± 4{\%}, p <0.001). 30B:70U and 30B:35T:35U presented the highest FS (125 ± 21 and 122 ± 14 MPa, respectively), statistically different from 30B:70T or 30B:70E (92 ± 20 and 94 ± 16 MPa, respectively). Composites containing UDMA or Bis-EMA associated with Bis-GMA presented similar FM, statistically lower than 30B:35T:35U. Significance: Composites formulated with Bis-GMA:TEGDMA:UDMA presented the best compromise between conversion and mechanical properties.",
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AU - Silva, Laura R.

AU - Kawano, Yoshio

AU - Braga, Roberto R.

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N2 - Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of monomer content on fracture toughness (KIc) before and after ethanol solution storage, flexural properties and degree of conversion (DC) of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) co-polymers. Methods: Five formulations were tested, containing Bis-GMA (B) combined with TEGDMA (T), UDMA (U) or Bis-EMA (E), as follows (in mol%): 30B:70T; 30B:35T:35U; 30B:70U; 30B:35T:35E; 30B:70E. Bimodal filler was introduced at 80 wt%. Single-edge notched beams for fracture toughness (FT, 25 mm × 5 mm × 2.5 mm, a/w = 0.5, n = 20) and 10 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm beams for flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM) determination (10 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm, n = 10) were built and then stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37 °C. All FS/FM beams and half of the FT specimens were immediately submitted to three-point bending test. The remaining FT specimens were stored in a 75%ethanol/25%water (v/v) solution for 3 months prior to testing. DC was determined with FT-Raman spectroscopy in fragments of both FT and FS/FM specimens at 24 h. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA/Tukey test (α = 5%). Results: The 30B:70T composite presented the highest KIc value (in MPa m1/2) at 24 h (1.3 ± 0.4), statistically similar to 30B:35T:35U and 30B:70U, while 30B:70E presented the lowest value (0.5 ± 0.1). After ethanol storage, reductions in KIc ranged from 33 to 72%. The 30B:70E material presented the lowest reduction in FT and 30B:70U, the highest. DC was similar among groups (69-73%), except for 30B:70U (52 ± 4%, p <0.001). 30B:70U and 30B:35T:35U presented the highest FS (125 ± 21 and 122 ± 14 MPa, respectively), statistically different from 30B:70T or 30B:70E (92 ± 20 and 94 ± 16 MPa, respectively). Composites containing UDMA or Bis-EMA associated with Bis-GMA presented similar FM, statistically lower than 30B:35T:35U. Significance: Composites formulated with Bis-GMA:TEGDMA:UDMA presented the best compromise between conversion and mechanical properties.

AB - Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of monomer content on fracture toughness (KIc) before and after ethanol solution storage, flexural properties and degree of conversion (DC) of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) co-polymers. Methods: Five formulations were tested, containing Bis-GMA (B) combined with TEGDMA (T), UDMA (U) or Bis-EMA (E), as follows (in mol%): 30B:70T; 30B:35T:35U; 30B:70U; 30B:35T:35E; 30B:70E. Bimodal filler was introduced at 80 wt%. Single-edge notched beams for fracture toughness (FT, 25 mm × 5 mm × 2.5 mm, a/w = 0.5, n = 20) and 10 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm beams for flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM) determination (10 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm, n = 10) were built and then stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37 °C. All FS/FM beams and half of the FT specimens were immediately submitted to three-point bending test. The remaining FT specimens were stored in a 75%ethanol/25%water (v/v) solution for 3 months prior to testing. DC was determined with FT-Raman spectroscopy in fragments of both FT and FS/FM specimens at 24 h. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA/Tukey test (α = 5%). Results: The 30B:70T composite presented the highest KIc value (in MPa m1/2) at 24 h (1.3 ± 0.4), statistically similar to 30B:35T:35U and 30B:70U, while 30B:70E presented the lowest value (0.5 ± 0.1). After ethanol storage, reductions in KIc ranged from 33 to 72%. The 30B:70E material presented the lowest reduction in FT and 30B:70U, the highest. DC was similar among groups (69-73%), except for 30B:70U (52 ± 4%, p <0.001). 30B:70U and 30B:35T:35U presented the highest FS (125 ± 21 and 122 ± 14 MPa, respectively), statistically different from 30B:70T or 30B:70E (92 ± 20 and 94 ± 16 MPa, respectively). Composites containing UDMA or Bis-EMA associated with Bis-GMA presented similar FM, statistically lower than 30B:35T:35U. Significance: Composites formulated with Bis-GMA:TEGDMA:UDMA presented the best compromise between conversion and mechanical properties.

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KW - Conversion

KW - Dimethacrylates

KW - Mechanical properties

KW - Organic solvents

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