Biomechanical aspects of axonal damage in glaucoma

A brief review

The Lasker/IRRF Initiative on Astrocytes and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration Participants

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The biomechanical environment within the optic nerve head (ONH) is complex and is likely directly involved in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. Unfortunately, our understanding of this process is poor. Here we describe factors that influence ONH biomechanics, including ONH connective tissue microarchitecture and anatomy; intraocular pressure (IOP); and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp). We note that connective tissue factors can vary significantly from one individual to the next, as well as regionally within an eye, and that the understanding of ONH biomechanics is hindered by anatomical differences between small-animal models of glaucoma (rats and mice) and humans. Other challenges of using animal models of glaucoma to study the role of biomechanics include the complexity of assessing the degree of glaucomatous progression; and inadequate tools for monitoring and consistently elevating IOP in animal models. We conclude with a consideration of important open research questions/challenges in this area, including: (i) Creating a systems biology description of the ONH; (ii) addressing the role of astrocyte connective tissue remodeling and reactivity in glaucoma; (iii) providing a better characterization of ONH astrocytes and non-astrocytic constituent cells; (iv) better understanding the role of ONH astrocyte phagocytosis, proliferation and death; (v) collecting gene expression and phenotype data on a larger, more coordinated scale; and (vi) developing an implantable IOP sensor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-19
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Eye Research
Volume157
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017

Fingerprint

Optic Disk
Glaucoma
Intraocular Pressure
Biomechanical Phenomena
Astrocytes
Connective Tissue
Animal Models
Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
Systems Biology
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Thromboplastin
Phagocytosis
Anatomy
Phenotype
Gene Expression
Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

The Lasker/IRRF Initiative on Astrocytes and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration Participants (2017). Biomechanical aspects of axonal damage in glaucoma: A brief review. Experimental Eye Research, 157, 13-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2017.02.005

Biomechanical aspects of axonal damage in glaucoma : A brief review. / The Lasker/IRRF Initiative on Astrocytes and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration Participants.

In: Experimental Eye Research, Vol. 157, 01.04.2017, p. 13-19.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

The Lasker/IRRF Initiative on Astrocytes and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration Participants 2017, 'Biomechanical aspects of axonal damage in glaucoma: A brief review', Experimental Eye Research, vol. 157, pp. 13-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2017.02.005
The Lasker/IRRF Initiative on Astrocytes and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration Participants. Biomechanical aspects of axonal damage in glaucoma: A brief review. Experimental Eye Research. 2017 Apr 1;157:13-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2017.02.005
The Lasker/IRRF Initiative on Astrocytes and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration Participants. / Biomechanical aspects of axonal damage in glaucoma : A brief review. In: Experimental Eye Research. 2017 ; Vol. 157. pp. 13-19.
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abstract = "The biomechanical environment within the optic nerve head (ONH) is complex and is likely directly involved in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. Unfortunately, our understanding of this process is poor. Here we describe factors that influence ONH biomechanics, including ONH connective tissue microarchitecture and anatomy; intraocular pressure (IOP); and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp). We note that connective tissue factors can vary significantly from one individual to the next, as well as regionally within an eye, and that the understanding of ONH biomechanics is hindered by anatomical differences between small-animal models of glaucoma (rats and mice) and humans. Other challenges of using animal models of glaucoma to study the role of biomechanics include the complexity of assessing the degree of glaucomatous progression; and inadequate tools for monitoring and consistently elevating IOP in animal models. We conclude with a consideration of important open research questions/challenges in this area, including: (i) Creating a systems biology description of the ONH; (ii) addressing the role of astrocyte connective tissue remodeling and reactivity in glaucoma; (iii) providing a better characterization of ONH astrocytes and non-astrocytic constituent cells; (iv) better understanding the role of ONH astrocyte phagocytosis, proliferation and death; (v) collecting gene expression and phenotype data on a larger, more coordinated scale; and (vi) developing an implantable IOP sensor.",
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