Biomarker distribution after injection into the canine prostate: Implications for gene therapy

D. R. Siemens, T. Iwasawa, J. C. Austin, R. D. Williams, W. A. See, S. P. Hedican, J. Tartaglia, C. M. Flynn, M. B. Cohen, J. Rodgers, T. L. Ratliff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the distribution of biomarkers after transrectal injection into the canine prostate and to report a method for enhancing the distribution of gene expression. Materials and methods: Carbon black was first used to evaluate the histopathological distribution in canine prostate of single or multiple injections via the transurethral, transperineal and transrectal routes. The distribution of canarypox virus (ALVAC) vectordelivered gene expression was then compared using both fluid-phase injection techniques and delivery in a solid carrier composed of a gelatine sponge matrix. Results: After transurethral administration, carbon black was detected as scattered particles in ducts and acini, mostly in the periphery of the gland. Direct transrectal injection of carbon black resulted in a localized collection at the site of injection, with only a minimal peri-acinar distribution. Transrectal injection of the fluid-phase (virus suspended in diluent) ALVAC vector encoding the β-galactosidase gene resulted in a similar distribution, with limited gene expression at the site of injection and in the needle track. Delivery of the same number of virus particles in the gelatine sponge matrix resulted in qualitatively greater gene expression. Conclusions: Direct injection of the canine prostate with biomarkers, including viral vectors, in the fluid-phase results in very localized gene expression, while the distribution was more widespread after delivery in a gelatine sponge matrix.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1076-1083
Number of pages8
JournalBJU international
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Drug delivery systems
  • Gene therapy
  • Prostatic neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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