Biology and genetic aspects of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: KIT activation and cytogenetic alterations

Michael Heinrich, Brian P. Rubin, B. Jack Longley, Jonathan A. Fletcher

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    404 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Recent studies have done much to reveal the biological and genetic underpinnings of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Constitutive activation of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase is a central pathogenetic event in most GISTs and generally results from oncogenic point mutations which can involve either extracellular or cytoplasmic domains of the receptor. Oncogenic mutations enable the KIT receptor to phosphorylate various substrate proteins, leading to activation of signal transduction cascades which regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, and adhesion. KIT mutations can be broadly assigned to 2 groups, those that involve the "regulatory" regions responsible for modulating KIT enzymatic activity and those that involve the enzymatic region itself. In vitro studies suggest that GISTs with regulatory-region KIT mutations are more likely to respond to STI-571 than are GISTs with enzymatic-region mutations. A minority of GISTs lack demonstrable KIT mutations, but KIT is nonetheless strongly activated. Such GISTs might contain KIT mutations which are not readily detected by conventional screening methods, or alternately, KIT might be activated by nonmutational mechanisms. Most GISTs have noncomplex cytogenetic profiles, often featuring deletions of chromosomes 14 and 22. Additional chromosomal aberrations are acquired as the GISTs progress to higher histologic grade. These cytogenetic aberrations are undoubtedly important in GIST pathogenesis, but currently they do not play a key role as diagnostic adjuncts.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)484-495
    Number of pages12
    JournalHuman Pathology
    Volume33
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 2002

    Fingerprint

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
    Cytogenetics
    Mutation
    Nucleic Acid Regulatory Sequences
    Chromosome Aberrations
    Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14
    Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22
    Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
    Chemotaxis
    Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Receptors
    Point Mutation
    Signal Transduction
    Cell Proliferation
    Apoptosis

    Keywords

    • Cytogenetics
    • Gastrointestinal neoplasm
    • KIT
    • Mutation
    • Oncogenic
    • Receptor tyrosine kinase
    • Sarcoma

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

    Cite this

    Biology and genetic aspects of gastrointestinal stromal tumors : KIT activation and cytogenetic alterations. / Heinrich, Michael; Rubin, Brian P.; Longley, B. Jack; Fletcher, Jonathan A.

    In: Human Pathology, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2002, p. 484-495.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Heinrich, Michael ; Rubin, Brian P. ; Longley, B. Jack ; Fletcher, Jonathan A. / Biology and genetic aspects of gastrointestinal stromal tumors : KIT activation and cytogenetic alterations. In: Human Pathology. 2002 ; Vol. 33, No. 5. pp. 484-495.
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