Our increase in knowledge of the pathophysiology of non-infectious uveitis (NIU) and other immune-mediated diseases has been mirrored over the last two decades by the expansion of therapeutic options in the realm of immunosuppressive medications. Principal among these advances is the emergence of biologics, which offer the promise of targeted therapy and the hope of reduced toxicity when compared to corticosteroids and “standard” immunosuppression. Among the biologics, monoclonal antibodies blocking tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) have been shown to be a very effective therapeutic target for uveitis and many associated systemic inflammatory diseases. Multiple TNF blockers have shown benefit for uveitis, and in 2016, adalimumab became the first biologic and non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive to obtain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the treatment of NIU. Although effective, TNF blockers are not universally so, and safety concerns such as infection and demyelinating disease must be carefully considered and ruled out prior to their use, especially in patients with intermediate uveitis with which multiple sclerosis is a known association. Ongoing study has identified novel targets for regulation in the treatment of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. Interferons, interleukin and Janus kinase inhibitors in addition to antibodies targeting T cell and B cell activation highlight the expanding field of treatment modalities in NIU. Ongoing study will be required to better determine the safety and efficacy of biologics in the armamentarium of immunosuppressive treatments for NIU.
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