Biogenic manganese oxides: Properties and mechanisms of formation

Bradley M. Tebo, John R. Bargar, Brian G. Clement, Gregory J. Dick, Karen J. Murray, Dorothy Parker, Rebecca Verity, Samuel M. Webb

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

963 Scopus citations


Manganese(IV) oxides produced through microbial activity, i.e., biogenic Mn oxides or Mn biooxides, are believed to be the most abundant and highly reactive Mn oxide phases in the environment. They mediate redox reactions with organic and inorganic compounds and sequester a variety of metals. The major pathway for bacterial Mn(II) oxidation is enzymatic, and although bacteria that oxidize Mn(II) are phylogenetically diverse, they require a multicopper oxidase-like enzyme to oxidize Mn(II). The oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(IV) occurs via a soluble or enzyme-complexed Mn(III) intermediate. The primary Mn(IV) biooxide formed is a phyllomanganate most similar to δ-MnO2 or acid birnessite. Metal sequestration by the Mn biooxides occurs predominantly at vacant layer octahedral sites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)287-328
Number of pages42
JournalAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences
StatePublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Bacterial Mn(II) oxidation
  • Birnessite
  • Mn bacteria
  • Mn minerals
  • Multicopper oxidase
  • X-ray absorption spectroscopy
  • δ-MnO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Biogenic manganese oxides: Properties and mechanisms of formation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this