Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism resulting from a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). Patients accumulate glutaric acid (GA) and 3-OH glutaric acid (3-OHGA) in their blood, urine and CSF. Clinically, GA-I is characterized by macrocephaly, progressive dystonia and dyskinesia. Degeneration of the caudate and putamen of the basal ganglia, widening of the Sylvian fissures, fronto-temporal atrophy and severe spongiform change in the white matter are also commonly observed. In this report we describe the phenotype of a mouse model of GA-I generated via targeted deletion of the Gcdh gene in embryonic stem cells. The Gcdh-/- mice have a biochemical phenotype very similar to human GA-I patients, including elevations of GA and 3-OHGA at levels similar to those seen in GA-I patients. The affected mice have a mild motor deficit but do not develop the progressive dystonia seen in human patients. Pathologically, the Gcdh-/- mice have a diffuse spongiform myelinopathy similar to that seen in GA-I patients. However, unlike in human patients, there is no evidence of neuron loss or astrogliosis in the striatum. Subjecting the Gcdh-/- mice to a metabolic stress, which often precipitates an encephalopathic crisis and the development of dystonia in GA-I patients, failed to have any neurologic effect on the mice. We hypothesize that the lack of similarity in regards to the neurologic phenotype and striatal pathology of GA-I patients, as compared with the Gcdh-/- mice, is due to intrinsic differences between the striata of mice and men.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Human molecular genetics|
|State||Published - Feb 15 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology