Objective: To characterize the incidence, presentation, management, and relapse of a large population of bilateral testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) from a single institution. Patients and Methods: We identified bilateral TGCT diagnosed between January 1989 and February 2014. We categorized synchronous and metachronous TGCT, noting time between first and second TGCT, histology (seminoma vs nonseminoma [NSGCT]), stage, and treatments. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates characterized relapse. Results: Of 5132 patients with TGCT, 128 (2.5%) had bilateral TGCT. Bilateral TGCT increased over time-1.7% in 1989-1994 up to 3.8% in 2010 to February 2014. The 35 (27%) synchronous cases of TGCT had 20 (57%) concordant seminoma, 5 (14%) concordant NSGCT, and 10 (29%) discordant NSGCT. The 93 (73%) metachronous cases had median time interval to second TGCT of 73 months (range: 5 months-28.6 years). Compared with first TGCT, 39 (42%) had discordant histology, 29 (31%) had concordant seminoma, and 25 (27%) had concordant NSGCT. Stage at first tumor was statistically similar to second TGCT (second stage I, II, II in 69%, 22%, 10%). Increasing duration between first and second TGCT was not associated with higher stage (II or III) at second TGCT (P = .09). Treatment at first tumor was not associated with stage at second tumor. Relapse following bilateral diagnosis was 16.8% (95% confidence interval 10.5%-26.2%) at 5 years. Conclusion: Incidence of bilateral TGCT increased with >25% of metachronous TGCT presenting ≥10 years after first TGCT; possible causes include increased survivorship and referral bias. Stage was statistically similar at first and second tumor; stage at second tumor was not associated with time interval between tumors or prior treatment modality at first tumor.
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